Nirodha: 34 definitions

Introduction:

Nirodha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Nirodh.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nirodha (निरोध, “hindrance”) refers to ‘frustration’ or impediment to the successful progression of the plot. Nirodha represents one of the thirteen pratimukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. This element is also known by the name Virodha. Pratimukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the progressing part (pratimukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Nirodha (निरोध).—One of the twelve elements of the ‘progression segment’ (pratimukhasandhi);—(Description:) Appearance of some calamity is called Hindrance (nirodha).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Nirodha (निरोध):—Stiffness, Retention

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Nirodha (निरोध, “blocking”) (or Nirodhagata, Nirodhagrāsa) refers to one of the ten types of (solar and lunar) eclipses (grāsa), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the eclipse should, commencing at the edge, travel inwards and remain there for a time of the shape of a dark ball, it is technically known as Nirodha (blocking up): all creatures will be happy. If the eclipse should be a total one and continue so for a time, it is known as Avamardana (tormenting): the then chief provinces will suffer and the then chief rulers will be afflicted with miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Nirodha (निरोध) refers to “(the practice of) checking” (the flux of the breath), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “One should make an effort to seek a teacher who brings about eternal bliss and awakens (his disciples) to what is beneficial. (The true teacher is) is fortunate and pleasing to see. [...] He has all his limbs and is free of defects. He knows (the practice of) piercing and shaking (the body of his disciple with his spiritual power) and checking (nirodha-jña) (the flux of the breath). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Nirodha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Nirodha (निरोध) refers to “cessation (of the activities of mind)”, according to the Viṣṇudharma verse 96.25-26.—Accordingly, while discussing the cessation of mind: “Since [duality is based on mental activity and non-duality on the ultimate truth], the activities of mind, which are caused by meritorious and unmeritorious actions, should be stopped. Because of their cessation (nirodha), duality does not arise. This duality, which consists of whatever is moving and unmoving, is an object of mind. When the mind has become without thoughts, then one obtains the absence of duality”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsCessation; disbanding; stopping.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

(Cessation) nirodha is the cessation of all aggregates and consciousness as a whole - even at a subtle level. In order to be experienced, it does require some specific determinations and the development of considerably more concentration than the one required for experiencing nibbana.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Nirodha means disappearance.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

s. Nirodha (“extinction”); - of craving: tanhakkhaya.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'extinction'; s. nirodha-samāpatti, anupubba-nirodha.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Nirodha (निरोध) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘viṣṭi’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., nirodha) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Nirodha (निरोध, “cessation”) refers to the “cessation of craving is the end of suffering” and represents one of the “four noble truths”, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).—The primary teaching of Śākyamuni Buddha was the Catvāri Āryasatyāni (“The Four Noble Truths”, which are as follows: 1. duḥkha "life is suffering" 2. samudaya "suffering arises from craving" 3. nirodha "the cessation of craving is the end of suffering" 4. mārga "there is a path which leads to the end of suffering".

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nirodha (निरोध) refers to “death”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 18).—Accordingly, “[...] The person who keeps the precepts (śīla) is reborn among the gods; trance, knowledge, purity of mind assure nirvāṇa. The merit inherent in generosity is the equipment for the Path of nirvāṇa: indeed, by thinking of the gifts [which one has made], one rejoices; by rejoicing, one settles one’s mind; by settling the mind, one contemplates impermanence of birth and death (utpāda-nirodha); by contemplating the impermanence of birth and death, one obtains the Path”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Nirodha (निरोध) refers to “cessation”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Further, the so-called ‘insight (prajñā)’ is a word for calm because it is free from the flame of false discrimination; [...] a word for knowledge because it is free from the duality of consciousness and knowledge; a word for uncrushability because it has no contrary; a word for no body because it is not brought into being; a word for the thorough understanding because it is [free from] the suffering which conceptually constructed; a word for getting rid of all-pervasive origin of [suffering] because it conquered all tendencies of desires; a word for cessation (nirodha-pada) because it is without occurrence; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Nirodha (निरोध, “cessation”) refers to the third of the “four noble truths” (caturāryasatya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 21). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., nirodha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Nirodha or Nirodhayajñāna refers to the “knowledge of cessation” and represents one of the “ten knowledges” (jñāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 93).

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

It means having put the Two Obstacles, i.e. the obstacle of afflictions and the obstacle of what is known, to an end. It also means that the beings have transcended the Two Deaths, i.e. glare sectioned birth and death and changed birth and death.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Nirodha (निरोध) (in Prakrit: Ṇirodhaṇa). refers to “control”—Mūlācāra 744 (vol. 2, p. 26), for instance, states that wrong belief, lack of restraint, passions, and activities of body, mind and speech are prevented by right faith, restraint, arresting and control (ṇirodhaṇa/nirodha), respectively. Bārasa Aṇupekkhā 61-3 include similar statements.—Cf. Hemacandra (Yogaśāstra 4.81-5 [vol. 2, p. 871-3]).

2) Nirodha (निरोध) refers to the “restraint” (of all influx of karma), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “That, which is the restraint of all influx of karma (sarvāsrava-nirodha), is called ‘stopping the influx of karma’. Further, that is divided in two on account of the distinction between what is physical and what is mental. That, which is the cessation of the acquisition of karmic material of an ascetic, is declared by those whose sins are removed by meditation to be the physical stopping of the influx of karma”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nirodha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nirodha : (m.) cessation; the final truth.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nirodha, (BSk. nirodha, to nirundhati, cp. nirujjhati & niruddha) oppression, suppression; destruction, cessation, annihilation (of senses, consciousness, feeling & being in general: saṅkhārā). Bdhgh’s explanation of the word is: “ni-saddo abhāvaṃ, rodha-saddo ca cārakaṃ dīpeti Vism. 495.—N. in many cases is synonymous with nibbāna & parinibbāna; it may be said to be even a stronger expression as far as the active destruction of the causes of life is concerned. Therefore frequently combined with nibbāna in formula “sabbasaṅkhāra-samatho ... virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ, ” e.g. S. I, 136; It. 88. Nd2 s. nibbāna (see nibbāna III, 6). Also in combination with nibbidā, e.g. S. III, 48, 223; III, 163 sq.; V, 438.—The opposite of nirodha is samudaya, cp. formula “yaṃ kiñci samudaya-dhammaṃ sabban taṃ nirodha-dhammaṃ” e.g. Nd2 under saṅkhārā & passim. (a) Vin. I, 1, 10; D. II, 33, 41, 57 sq. , 112; III, 130 sq. , 136 sq. , 226 sq.; J. I, 133; II, 9 sq. , 223; III, 59 sq. , 163; V, 438; M. I, 140, 263, 410; A. I, 299; IV, 456 (=āsavānaṃ parikkhaya); Th. 2, 6 (=kilesanirodha ThA. 13), 158; It. 46=Sn. 755 (nirodhe ye vimuccanti te janā maccuhāyino); It. 62=Sn. 754; Sn. 731, 1037; Ps. I, 192; II, 44 sq. , 221; Pug. 68; Vbh. 99 sq. , 229; Nett 14, 16 sq.; Vism. 372; VvA. 63; PvA. 220 (jīvitassa).—(b) (as-°): anupubba° D. III, 266; A. IV, 409, 456; abhisaññā° D. I, 180; asesavirāga° S. II, 4, 12; IV, 86; V, 421 sq.; A. I, 177; II, 158, 161; upādāna° S. III, 14; kāma° A. III, 410 sq.; jāti° S. IV, 86; taṇhā° D. III, 216; dukkha° D. III, 136; S. III, 32, 60; IV, 4 sq. , 14, 384; A. I, 177; nandi° S. III, 14; IV, 36; bhava° (=nibbāna) S. II, 117; III, 14; A. V, 9; Ps. I, 159; sakkāya° D. III, 240; S. V, 410; A. II, 165 sq.; III, 246, 325 sq.; V, 238 sq.; saññāvedayita° D. III, 262, 266; S. IV, 217, 293 sq.; V, 213 sq.; A. I, 41; III, 192; IV, 306; V, 209.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nirōdha (निरोध).—m (S) Restraining or confining: restraint or confinement: also obstructing or impeding gen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nirōdha (निरोध).—m nirōdhana n Restraining; restraint. Obstructing. Restraining, confining, checking; also obstructing or imped- ing.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध).—1 Confinement, locking up, imprisonment; Bhāgavata 1.58.58; निरोधनेन बन्धेन विविधेन वधेन च (nirodhanena bandhena vividhena vadhena ca) (nigṛhṇīyāt) Manusmṛti 8.31; वैश्यः सर्वस्वदण्डः स्यात् संवत्सरनिरोधतः (vaiśyaḥ sarvasvadaṇḍaḥ syāt saṃvatsaranirodhataḥ) 375.

2) Enclosing, covering up; Amaruśataka 87.

3) Restraint, check, suppression, control; योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः (yogaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ) Yoga. S.; अन्तश्चराणां मरुतां निरोधान्निवातनिष्कम्पमिव प्रदीपम् (antaścarāṇāṃ marutāṃ nirodhānnivātaniṣkampamiva pradīpam) Kumārasambhava 3.48.

4) Hindrance, obstruction, opposition.

5) Hurting, punishing, injuring.

6) Annihilation, complete destruction; जन्मनिरोधं प्रवदन्ति यस्य (janmanirodhaṃ pravadanti yasya) Śvet. Up.3.21.

7) Aversion, dislike.

8) Disappointment, frustration of hopes (in dramatic language).

9) (With the Buddhists) Suppression of pain.

1) Extinction (laya), निरोधोऽस्यानुशयनमात्मनः सह शक्तिभिः (nirodho'syānuśayanamātmanaḥ saha śaktibhiḥ) Bhāgavata 2.1.6.

Derivable forms: nirodhaḥ (निरोधः).

See also (synonyms): nirodhana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध).—m. (= Sanskrit and Pali id.), suppression; in statements of the 3d Noble Truth, see ārya-satya; ni°- samāpatti, see this; meaning obscure in (sukhito pramuditaḥ pratikrośaṃ) pratilabhati (sc. in the decadence of religion) purima-nirodha-dṛṣṭaṃ Mahāvastu ii.371.(10—)11 (verse); Senart's note has what seems to me an unacceptable suggestion. Could it mean (revilings) seen in earlier repressions (of religion)? [See s.v. Rodha for a wrong reading which would make Nirodha the name of a former Buddha, Lalitavistara 171.17.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध).—m.

(-dhaḥ) 1. Loss, destruction. 2. Opposition, hindrance, check, restraint, prevention. 3. A version, disfavour, dislike. 4. Preserving. 5. Confinement. E. ni before, rudh to oppose, affix bhāve ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध).—i. e. ni-rudh + a, m. 1. Confinement, imprisonment, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 375. 2. Coercion, 6, 60. 3. Obstruction, Mahābhārata 3, 11554. 4. Destruction, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 111. 5. Disappointment, Daśarūp. 1, 31.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध).—[masculine] shutting in, confinement, restraint, coercion, oppression.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nirodha (निरोध):—[=ni-rodha] [from ni-rudh] m. confinement, locking up, imprisonment (-tas, [Manu-smṛti viii, 375])

2) [v.s. ...] investment, siege, [Catalogue(s)]

3) [v.s. ...] enclosing, covering up, [Varāha-mihira; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] restraint, check, control, suppression, destruction, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) disappointment, frustration of hope, [Daśarūpa]

6) [v.s. ...] (with, [Buddhist literature]) suppression or annihilation of pain (one of the 4 principles), [Lalita-vistara; Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 43, 56, 137 etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a [particular] process to which minerals ([especially] quicksilver) are subjected, [Catalogue(s)]

8) [v.s. ...] hurting, injuring (= ni-graha), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] aversion, disfavour, dislike, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Lalita-vistara]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध):—(dhaḥ) 1. m. Loss; confinement; check; dislike; preserving.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nirodha (निरोध) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇiroha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nirodha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nirodha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nirodha (निरोध) [Also spelled nirodh]:—(nm) restraint, control; obstruction; restriction; detention; hence ~[ka] (a).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nirōdha (ನಿರೋಧ):—

1) [noun] the condition of being tied or fastened with (a string, cord, rope, etc.).

2) [noun] the act of preventing or being prevented from moving, going, progressing, etc.; an obstructing.

3) [noun] a shutting (something) in; the act of keeping something enclosed.

4) [noun] the state or fact of controlling or being controlled.

5) [noun] the act of opposing or an opposed condition; opposition.

6) [noun] destruction; demolition.

7) [noun] the act or fact of disappointing or being disappointed; disappointment.

8) [noun] a thin protective sheath for the penis, generally of very thin rubber, used during sexual intercourse to prevent venereal infection or as a contraceptive; a condom.

9) [noun] an instance of ejaculation before reaching the climax of sexual excitement, caused by psychological resistence.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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