Nirmukta: 13 definitions


Nirmukta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त) means “devoid” (i.e., ‘free from’), according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “The supreme sky is pervasive and free of (all) qualities [i.e., guṇa-nirmukta], including sound and the rest. It should be known to be the supreme space, which is (the supreme) reality, namely, the Void free of imperfection. It is the lineage called the Path of Meru in the Kula teaching”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Nirmukta in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त) refers to “(being) freed from”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.20 (“The story of the submarine fire”).—Accordingly, after Brahmā spoke to the Ocean: “Thus requested by me, the ocean agreed. None else could have grasped Śiva’s fire of fury thus. That fire in the form of a mare entered the ocean and began to consume the currents of water. It blazed with all its shooting flames. O sage, then, delighted in mind I returned to my abode. The ocean of divine form bowed to me and vanished. O great sage, the entire universe, freed from [i.e., nirmukta] the fear of that fire became normal. The gods and the sages became happy”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Nirmukta in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त) refers to “being free from (the elements)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Now, I will teach knowledge for the liberation of those people who have conquered their passion. [...] The highest reality is defined as that which is free from the elements (bhūta-nirmukta) such as ether; beyond the organs of perception and free of [mental] states such as worry. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Nirmukta in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त) refers to the “casting off” (of the old slough of snakes), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “Finding the birds healthy and well-developed, [...] when they look like snakes which have just cast off their old sloughs (nirmukta-uraga), when with their feet fastened with silken jesses they assume variegated colours from the rays of the jewels in their golden necklaces, their leg rings resound with small bells, [...] their owner should then call them on auspicious day. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त) refers to “(being) freed from” (all worldly concern), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Speech which is based on truth, freed from all [worldly] concern (viśvavyāpāra-nirmukta) [and] supported by knowledge of the [Jain] scriptures, is to be considered to produce good influx of karma. Speech that is untrue [and] harsh, that is the abode of censure [and] gives instruction about the wrong path, is to be considered to produce bad influx of karma”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nirmukta (निर्मुक्त).—p (S) Loosed or set free gen., disjoined, separated &c.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त).—p. p.

1) Set free, freed, liberated; R.1.46.

2) Freed from worldly attachments.

3) Separated, disjoined.

4) Pressed out; फुल्लं कुरबकं पश्य निर्मुक्तालक्तकप्रभम् (phullaṃ kurabakaṃ paśya nirmuktālaktakaprabham) Bu. Ch.4.47.

-ktaḥ A snake which has lately cast off its skin; आददानाश्च नाराचान्निर्मुक्ताशीविषोपमान् (ādadānāśca nārācānnirmuktāśīviṣopamān) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.44.17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त).—[adjective] unbound, loosened; delivered, escaped; saved from, rid of ([instrumental], or [ablative]); given up, lost, disappeared (°—); having cast the skin (serpent).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त):—[=nir-mukta] [from nir-muc] mfn. loosed, separated, sundered, liberated or saved or escaped or free from, deprived of ([instrumental case] [ablative] or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] given up, lost, disappeared, vanished ([especially] [in the beginning of a compound]; cf. below)

3) [v.s. ...] flung, hurled, [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] (a serpent) that has lately cast its skin, [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] free from every attachment (= niḥ-saṅga), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] deprived of all, possessing nothing (= niṣ-parigraha), [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त):—[nir-mukta] (ktaḥ) 1. m. A snake that has lately cast his skin. a. Loosed.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nirmukta (निर्मुक्त) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇimmukka.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nirmukta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nirmukta (ನಿರ್ಮುಕ್ತ):—[adjective] freed; liberated; escaped from another’s control.

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Nirmukta (ನಿರ್ಮುಕ್ತ):—

1) [noun] a liberated, independent man.

2) [noun] a man who has escaped from the clutches of worldly passions.

3) [noun] a man who has become one with another (esp. with the Supreme Being).

4) [noun] the Supreme Being.

5) [noun] a snake that has just cast off the outer layer of its skin.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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