Nirgama: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Nirgama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Nirgama (निर्गम) refers to the “egress” (of the end of shadow of a perpendicular rod), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Either from observing some distant point in the horizon where the sun rises or sets or from observing the ingress or the egress [i.e., nirgama] of the end of shadow of a perpendicular rod placed at the centre of a big horizontal circle (the change in the sun’s course can be detected). If the Sun should change his course before reaching Makara (Capricornus) he will bring evil on the west and south; and if he should do so before reaching Karka (Cancer), he will bring evil on the north and east”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Nirgama (निर्गम).—Annulus. Note: Nirgama is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Nirgama (निर्गम) refers to “- 1. projection §§ 3.2, 13, 14. - 2. front section of a pavilion (Aj) §§ 3.34, 35, 39, 41; 4.9, 22.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Nirgama (निर्गम) refers to “(a door for) exit”, according to the Mohacūrottara (verse 4.234-243).—Accordingly, [while describing the construction of the maṭha]—“[...] The installation of the houses is according to the wishes [of the patron]. There should be a [door for] entry and exit (nirgamasyād veśa nirgamaḥ) to the north. [The houses] may have one, two, or three floors, or as is pleasing. Externally, [the building] is surrounded by a long hall. In the eastern side of the building is the place for worship. One should install the kitchen and so forth as appropriate. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Nirgama (निर्गम) refers to an “exit” (of power), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Stillness (nirācāra) is said to be the exit [i.e., nirgama] of the power of the vital breath. The yogi is then one who is Still (nirācāra) and abides on the plane of an Avadhūta. He then performs the rite of adoration of the mitresses of Yoga and Śiva”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nirgama (निर्गम) refers to “going” (Cf. Āgama—‘coming’), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]—[...] (5). The Buddha has no non-concentrated mind.—[...] All the characteristics of things (dharmalakṣaṇa), unity (ekārtha), multiplicity (nānārtha), production (utpāda), cessation (nirodha), interruption (uccheda), permanence (śāśvata), coming (āgama) and going (nirgama) are deceptions, the formation of a collection of falsehoods. Since the Buddha is well established in the true nature of dharmas, his mind is never non-concentrated and, being never non-concentrated, it does not change. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Nirgama (निर्गम) refers to “end” (i.e., ‘way out’), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The three worlds, which are made foolish by the action of the poison of lust, are fast asleep in this gaping mouth of Yama’s serpent which is marked by fangs of destruction. While this one whose disposition is pitiless is devouring everyone, certainly there is no way out [com.nirgama—‘an end’] from this for you, noble fellow, by any means [even] with some difficulty without knowledge of what is beyond the senses. [Thus ends the reflection on] helplessness”.

Synonyms: Niḥsaraṇa.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nirgama (निर्गम).—m (S) Happy issue out of. 2 End, termination, result, issue. 3 Going forth or out.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nirgama (निर्गम).—m Happy issue out of. End, ter- mination. Going forth or out.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nirgama (निर्गम).—

1) Going forth or out, going away; यावदादिशति पार्थिवस्तयोर्निर्गमाय पुरमार्गसत्क्रियाम् (yāvadādiśati pārthivastayornirgamāya puramārgasatkriyām) R.11.3.

2) Departure, vanishing, passing away; तेन तस्य मधुनिर्गमात् कृशश्चित्तयोनिर भवत् पुनर्नवः (tena tasya madhunirgamāt kṛśaścittayonira bhavat punarnavaḥ) R.19.46.

3) A door, an outlet, egress; कथमप्यवाप्तनिर्गमः प्रययौ (kathamapyavāptanirgamaḥ prayayau) K.159.

5) Exit, issue.

6) Exportplace (of goods); आगमं निर्गमं स्थानं तथा वृद्धिक्षयावुभौ । विचार्य सर्वपण्यानां कारयेत् क्रयविक्रयौ (āgamaṃ nirgamaṃ sthānaṃ tathā vṛddhikṣayāvubhau | vicārya sarvapaṇyānāṃ kārayet krayavikrayau) || Manusmṛti 8.41.

Derivable forms: nirgamaḥ (निर्गमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirgama (निर्गम).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Going forth or out, exit. 2. Total loss or departure. E. nir out, gama going; also nirgamana and nirgati.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirgama (निर्गम).—i. e. nis-gam + a, m. 1. Going out, setting out, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 14, 8. 2. Vanishing, Mahābhārata 3, 11892. 3. Issue, outlet, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 44, 11. 4. Export, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 401. 5. A door, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 5, 7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirgama (निर्गम).—[masculine] going out (also na [neuter]), ceasing, vanishing, issue, end.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nirgama (निर्गम):—[=nir-gama] [from nir-gam] m. going forth, setting out, departure, [Varāha-mihira; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] escaping from ([ablative]), [Vedāntasāra]

3) [v.s. ...] disappearing, vanishing, cessation, end, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Suśruta] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] exit, issue, outlet, [Rāmāyaṇa; Pañcatantra]

5) [v.s. ...] a door, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] export-place (of goods), [Manu-smṛti viii, 401] (opp. ā-gama).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirgama (निर्गम):—[nir-gama] (maḥ) 1. m. Exit; loss, departure. Also nirgamana, nirgati.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nirgama (निर्गम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇiggama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nirgama in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nirgama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nirgama (निर्गम) [Also spelled nirgam]:—(nm) outlet, exit, egress; ~[na] exit, egression; departure; •[mārga] exit; egress.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nirgama (ನಿರ್ಗಮ):—[noun] = ನಿರ್ಗಮನ [nirgamana].

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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