Nirajana, Nīrājanā, Nīrājana, Nirājana: 15 definitions



Nirajana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Nirajana in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to “waving of lights” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services (upacāra) as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. The sixteen types of service are [for example, waving of lights (nīrājana)] [...] Or he shall perform all the sixteen rites in the phallic emblem of human, saintly or godly origin, or in one naturally risen up (svayambhū) or in one of very extraordinary nature installed duly”.

Nīrājana (the rite of waving lights) is also mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the rite of waving lights Nīrājana for Śiva shall be performed with the mantra for the lamp (‘Namaḥ Āśave’). Puṣpāñjali (offering of handful of flowers) shall be performed with devotion with the hymn ‘Imā rudrāya’ etc.”.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Nīrājanā (नीराजना) is the name of a ceremony performed by the Kṣatriyas, as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīrājanā ceremony, in which Durgā—the goddess of war—is worshipped and the weapons of war are also worshipped in the temple of Durgā, seems to have been a kind of military ceremony associated with the Kṣatriyas.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Nīrājana (नीराजन).—(waving of lights) taken by the Apsarasas at the marriage of Kāmeśvara and Devī; one way of honouring deity.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 15. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 267. 19.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Nirajana in Kavya glossary
Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to the “ceremonial waving of lights round an object of worship or an idol” (also round a person or horses and elephants as an auspicious act). Cf Nimicchati or Nirmicchati.—[...] The Nīrājana ceremony was originally military in character, being performed by kings on the eve of an expedition usually in the autumn. The object was the purification of the army and the elephants and the horses that formed part of it. Harivaṃśa (Viṣṇuparva 16.33) says while describing the autumn [...]. A similar reference is found in Padmapurāṇa (Pātālakhaṇḍa 5.102-103), which describes how Kāntimatī performed Nīrājana in honour of her husband Puṣkala on the eve of his departure on a warlike mission. The word has a similar significance in Naiṣadha 1.10, though the verse admits of another construction. Cf. Jātakamālā, p. 215; and Māgha 17.16 (Malli commentary).

The military character of the [Nīrājana] ceremony finds prominence in Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 44), which prescribes the Nīrājana of horses, elephants and men in the month of Āśvina or Kārtika, and lays stress on the rites connected with the horses in particular. The priest pierces the earthen figure of the foeman with a spear, and the king sets out on his expedition. (note: Kṣīrasvāmin on Amara 2.8.95 says that Nīrājana is followed by a rite called Lohābhisāra to be performed before the starting of the expedition) The Nīrājana ceremony was essentially a Śānti or a rite to counteract evil influences. Gradually it lost its military character, but continued as a propitiatory rite. Cf. Rucipati in his commentary on Anargharāghava 2.10. The circular waving of lights was a special feature of the Nīrājana ritual, and that before idols is also known as Ārātrika, popularly called Ārati. In Kāvya poetry the word is often used in the sense of “illumination” or “adoration as with waving lights”.

In Naiṣadha 2.26, the expression nīrājana-vardhamānaka means “a vessel revolved round the face of a person to ward off the evil eye”. See notes on 2.26. Kṣīrasvāmin gives the following derivation of the word:—“nīrasya śāntyudakasyājanaṃ kṣepo'tra nīrājanaṃ, mantroktyā vāhanāyudhāderniḥśeṣeṇa rājanaṃ vātra”. The latter construction is the more probable. The word is derived from niḥ + rāj. Māgha (17.16) uses the form Nirarājayat.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to the act of waving a lamp (dīpa) used in the offering of Mahānīrājanadīpa (“great lamp for waving”), representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—A lamp (Mar. niranjan) with at least two wicks, or a plate carrying five wick lamps (pañcārati; cf. illustration) is vertically rotated clockwise in front of the icon. The burning camphor—which is believed to have purificatory qualities and expel evil—is burnt in a small fish-shaped dish (Mar. karpūrpātra) and is rotated in the same manner. This act of waving is here called nīrājana (in other places also nirajanā) or ārtikya (Mar./Hindi: ārati; also Sanskritized into aratrika, ārārtika). The word ārati is especially used with reference to the waving of a lamp or camphor which is accompanied by singing of metrical compositions in regional languages. Such a composition is also known as āratī.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nīrājana.—(SII 1), the waving of a lamp before an idol; same as ārātrika. Note: nīrājana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nīrājana (नीराजन).—n (S) Waving of a platter with lighted lamps in it around the head (of an idol, of bride and bridegroom, of guests).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nīrājana (नीराजन) or Nīrājanā (नीराजना).—

1) Lustration of arms, a kind of military and religious ceremony performed by kings or generals of armies in the month of Āśvina before they took the field; (it was, so to say, a general purification of the king's Purohita, the ministers, and all the various component parts of the army, together with the arms and implements of war, by means of sacred Mantras); तम्मै सम्यग् हुतो वह्निर्वाजिनीराजनाविधौ (tammai samyag huto vahnirvājinīrājanāvidhau) R. 4.25;17.12; चक्रे स चक्रनिभचङ्क्रमणच्छलेन नीराजनां जनयतां निजबान्धवानाम् (cakre sa cakranibhacaṅkramaṇacchalena nīrājanāṃ janayatāṃ nijabāndhavānām) N.1.144.

2) Waving lights before an idol as an act of adoration; नीराजनाभिः सुभगाः सुभ्रुवः समभावयन् (nīrājanābhiḥ subhagāḥ subhruvaḥ samabhāvayan) Śiva B.6.62; तुरङ्गमस्येव रणे निवृत्ते नीराजनाकौतुकमङ्गलानि (turaṅgamasyeva raṇe nivṛtte nīrājanākautukamaṅgalāni) Pratijñā 1.12.

Derivable forms: nīrājanam (नीराजनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nīrājana (नीराजन).—nf.

(-naṃ-nā) 1. Lustration of arms; military and religious ceremony held or the 19th of Ashwin, by kings or generals for purifying the army before taking the field; it is still observed by some Hindu states, under the name of Dashahara. 2. Waving lights before an idol; but it may also be performed with a lotus, clean cloth, or the leaves of various sacred plants; prostration is also considered as the fifth kind of this sort of adoration. E. nir completely, rāja to shine, aff yuc or bhāve lyuṭ; ralope pūrvāṇo dīrghaḥ or nīra water, and ajana going, sprinkling the arms, horses, &c. with water.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nīrājana (नीराजन).—i. e. nis-rāj, [Causal.], + ana, n. and f. , Lustration of arms, a military and religious ceremony, [Pañcatantra] 158, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nīrājana (नीराजन).—[neuter] [feminine] a kind of lustration ([ritual or religion]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nīrājana (नीराजन):—[=nī-rājana] [from nī-rāj] n. lustration of arms (a ceremony performed by kings in the month Āśvina or in Kārttika before taking the field), [Varāha-mihira; Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] waving lights before an idol as an act of adoration, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nīrājana (नीराजन):—[nī-rājana] (naṃ-nā) 1. n. f. Lustration of arms; waving light to an idol.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Nīrajana (नीरजन):—[Oxforder Handschriften 31,a,23] fehlerhaft für nīrājana .

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Nīrājana (नीराजन):—(vom caus. von rāj mit ni) n. und f. Reinigung, Bez. einer Cerimonie, bei der ein König seinen Purohita, seine Dienstleute, Pferde, Elephanten u.s.w. unter Hersagen heiliger Sprüche waschen und reinigen lässt, lustratio exercitus [Amarakoṣa.2,8,2,62.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 789.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S.2,e] [?(A. Bl.2,b).] Ausführlich wird diese Cerimonie beschrieben im 43ten Kapitel, das nīrājanavidhi betitelt ist. turaṃgamakarinaranīrājanaṃ kuryāt (der König) [43 (34), 1.] dvādaśyāmaṣṭamyāṃ kārttikaśuklasya pañcadaśyāṃ vā . āśvayuje vā kuryānnīrājanasaṃjñakāṃ śāntim 2. nīrājane nivṛtte [44 (43), 11.] tato nīrajanārthaṃ vai vṛndaśo gokulāni ca . parivavrurgirivaraṃ savṛṣāṇi samantataḥ .. [Harivaṃśa 3884.] asminparyāyanirvṛtte gavāṃ nīrājanotsave [3890.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 19, 67.] [Pañcatantra 158, 4.] bheje nīrājanāvidhīn [Raghuvaṃśa 17, 12.] vājinīrājanavidhau [4, 25.] bhrāmayitvā rathaṃ vīra puraṃ sarvapradakṣiṇam . svasthāne sthāpayedbhūyaḥ kṛtvā nīrajanaṃ (sic) budhaḥ .. [Bhaviṣyapurāna] in [Oxforder Handschriften 31,a,22.] nīrājanadvādaśīvrata [Weber’s Verzeichniss 135,b (68).] Nach [Śabdakalpadruma] und [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] auch die sonst ārātrika genannte Cerimonie.

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Nīrājana (नीराजन):—[Z. 1] lies nis st. ni .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Nīrajana (नीरजन):—n. fehlerhaft für nīrājana.

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Nīrājana (नीराजन):—n. und f. Reinigung , Bez. einer Ceremonie , bei der ein Fürst seinen Purohita , seine Dienstleute , Pferde , Elephanten u.s.w. unter Hersagen heiliger Sprüche waschen und reinigen lässt , lustratio exercitus. Wird das Object , das gereinigt wird , hinzugefügt , so steht es im Gen. oder geht im Comp. voran.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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