Nirajana, Nīrājanā, Nīrājana, Nirājana: 20 definitions
Nirajana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to “waving of lights” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services (upacāra) as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. The sixteen types of service are [for example, waving of lights (nīrājana)] [...] Or he shall perform all the sixteen rites in the phallic emblem of human, saintly or godly origin, or in one naturally risen up (svayambhū) or in one of very extraordinary nature installed duly”.
Nīrājana (the rite of waving lights) is also mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the rite of waving lights Nīrājana for Śiva shall be performed with the mantra for the lamp (‘Namaḥ Āśave’). Puṣpāñjali (offering of handful of flowers) shall be performed with devotion with the hymn ‘Imā rudrāya’ etc.”.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Nīrājanā (नीराजना) is the name of a ceremony performed by the Kṣatriyas, as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīrājanā ceremony, in which Durgā—the goddess of war—is worshipped and the weapons of war are also worshipped in the temple of Durgā, seems to have been a kind of military ceremony associated with the Kṣatriyas.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Nīrājana (नीराजन).—(waving of lights) taken by the Apsarasas at the marriage of Kāmeśvara and Devī; one way of honouring deity.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 15. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 267. 19.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to the “ceremonial waving of lights round an object of worship or an idol” (also round a person or horses and elephants as an auspicious act). Cf Nimicchati or Nirmicchati.—[...] The Nīrājana ceremony was originally military in character, being performed by kings on the eve of an expedition usually in the autumn. The object was the purification of the army and the elephants and the horses that formed part of it. Harivaṃśa (Viṣṇuparva 16.33) says while describing the autumn [...]. A similar reference is found in Padmapurāṇa (Pātālakhaṇḍa 5.102-103), which describes how Kāntimatī performed Nīrājana in honour of her husband Puṣkala on the eve of his departure on a warlike mission. The word has a similar significance in Naiṣadha 1.10, though the verse admits of another construction. Cf. Jātakamālā, p. 215; and Māgha 17.16 (Malli commentary).
The military character of the [Nīrājana] ceremony finds prominence in Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 44), which prescribes the Nīrājana of horses, elephants and men in the month of Āśvina or Kārtika, and lays stress on the rites connected with the horses in particular. The priest pierces the earthen figure of the foeman with a spear, and the king sets out on his expedition. (note: Kṣīrasvāmin on Amara 2.8.95 says that Nīrājana is followed by a rite called Lohābhisāra to be performed before the starting of the expedition) The Nīrājana ceremony was essentially a Śānti or a rite to counteract evil influences. Gradually it lost its military character, but continued as a propitiatory rite. Cf. Rucipati in his commentary on Anargharāghava 2.10. The circular waving of lights was a special feature of the Nīrājana ritual, and that before idols is also known as Ārātrika, popularly called Ārati. In Kāvya poetry the word is often used in the sense of “illumination” or “adoration as with waving lights”.
In Naiṣadha 2.26, the expression nīrājana-vardhamānaka means “a vessel revolved round the face of a person to ward off the evil eye”. See notes on 2.26. Kṣīrasvāmin gives the following derivation of the word:—“nīrasya śāntyudakasyājanaṃ kṣepo'tra nīrājanaṃ, mantroktyā vāhanāyudhāderniḥśeṣeṇa rājanaṃ vātra”. The latter construction is the more probable. The word is derived from niḥ + rāj. Māgha (17.16) uses the form Nirarājayat.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to certain annual ceremonies to be performed by princes for success in war, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It treats of indradhvaja, of the rainbow and of architecture; of the prediction of events from casual words and gestures and from the cawing of crows; of the formation of zodiacal circles for purposes of horary astrology. It treats of the prediction of future events from phenomena connected with the deer, the dog and the motions of the wind; of the construction of temples, towers and palaces; of the casting of images and of founding the same; of the growth of plants and trees; of under currents; of certain annual ceremonies to be performed by princes for success in war [i.e., nīrājana]. [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to the “waving of lamps”, according to the Kularatnoddyota verse 2.21-27.—Accordingly, “[...] He worshipped the Great Transmission with hymns and excellent divine lauds, by exhibiting the Great Gestures and with salutations and the waving of lamps (nīrājana-namaskāra) along with divine words of praise and rites of adoration centered on the maṇḍala and the Krama. Taking up then the energizing (substances), O fair one, he who does all things, was conjoined with the goddess. O Supreme mistress, praised by the heroes, the Lord of the heroes and the universal Self took up the vessel with the meat and put it in (his) mouth along with the sacrificial pap. [...]”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Nīrājana (नीराजन) or “lustration” refers to a Tantric ceremony, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.106cd-109]—“The [Mantrin] is to perform the lustration (nīrājana) in order to secure prosperity of the king and in the kingdom when the king is touched by the power of death, when [the king], his sons, or his country are marked by signs of death, etc., when Brahmins [and others] are [in danger] in all directions [i.e., in the capital and elsewhere], with the danger of loss of rice crops, grain, fruit, roots and water, and in times of famine, disease and great calamities. After sacrificing as before, the [Mantrin] should perform the water pot consecration”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)
Nīrājana (नीराजन) stems from the verb stem nī-rāj (nis + √rāj [to cause to illuminate, to shine upon], where √rāj also means to rule or to shine). Thus, the nīrājana illuminates like fire. It drives back evil, which causes radiance or good fortune.
Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Nīrājana (नीराजन) refers to the act of waving a lamp (dīpa) used in the offering of Mahānīrājanadīpa (“great lamp for waving”), representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—A lamp (Mar. niranjan) with at least two wicks, or a plate carrying five wick lamps (pañcārati; cf. illustration) is vertically rotated clockwise in front of the icon. The burning camphor—which is believed to have purificatory qualities and expel evil—is burnt in a small fish-shaped dish (Mar. karpūrpātra) and is rotated in the same manner. This act of waving is here called nīrājana (in other places also nirajanā) or ārtikya (Mar./Hindi: ārati; also Sanskritized into aratrika, ārārtika). The word ārati is especially used with reference to the waving of a lamp or camphor which is accompanied by singing of metrical compositions in regional languages. Such a composition is also known as āratī.
India history and geography
Nīrājana.—(SII 1), the waving of a lamp before an idol; same as ārātrika. Note: nīrājana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
nīrājana (नीराजन).—n (S) Waving of a platter with lighted lamps in it around the head (of an idol, of bride and bridegroom, of guests).
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Nīrājana (नीराजन) or Nīrājanā (नीराजना).—
1) Lustration of arms, a kind of military and religious ceremony performed by kings or generals of armies in the month of Āśvina before they took the field; (it was, so to say, a general purification of the king's Purohita, the ministers, and all the various component parts of the army, together with the arms and implements of war, by means of sacred Mantras); तम्मै सम्यग् हुतो वह्निर्वाजिनीराजनाविधौ (tammai samyag huto vahnirvājinīrājanāvidhau) R. 4.25;17.12; चक्रे स चक्रनिभचङ्क्रमणच्छलेन नीराजनां जनयतां निजबान्धवानाम् (cakre sa cakranibhacaṅkramaṇacchalena nīrājanāṃ janayatāṃ nijabāndhavānām) N.1.144.
2) Waving lights before an idol as an act of adoration; नीराजनाभिः सुभगाः सुभ्रुवः समभावयन् (nīrājanābhiḥ subhagāḥ subhruvaḥ samabhāvayan) Śiva B.6.62; तुरङ्गमस्येव रणे निवृत्ते नीराजनाकौतुकमङ्गलानि (turaṅgamasyeva raṇe nivṛtte nīrājanākautukamaṅgalāni) Pratijñā 1.12.
Derivable forms: nīrājanam (नीराजनम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ-nā) 1. Lustration of arms; military and religious ceremony held or the 19th of Ashwin, by kings or generals for purifying the army before taking the field; it is still observed by some Hindu states, under the name of Dashahara. 2. Waving lights before an idol; but it may also be performed with a lotus, clean cloth, or the leaves of various sacred plants; prostration is also considered as the fifth kind of this sort of adoration. E. nir completely, rāja to shine, aff yuc or bhāve lyuṭ; ralope pūrvāṇo dīrghaḥ or nīra water, and ajana going, sprinkling the arms, horses, &c. with water.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Nīrājana (नीराजन).—i. e. nis-rāj, [Causal.], + ana, n. and f. nā, Lustration of arms, a military and religious ceremony, [Pañcatantra] 158, 4.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Nīrājana (नीराजन).—[neuter] nā [feminine] a kind of lustration ([ritual or religion]).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Nīrājana (नीराजन):—[=nī-rājana] [from nī-rāj] n. lustration of arms (a ceremony performed by kings in the month Āśvina or in Kārttika before taking the field), [Varāha-mihira; Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] waving lights before an idol as an act of adoration, [Horace H. Wilson]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Nīrājana (नीराजन):—[nī-rājana] (naṃ-nā) 1. n. f. Lustration of arms; waving light to an idol.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
1) [noun] a votive lamp, lit before a deity.
2) [noun] a waving of such lamps before a deity.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Nirajanadvadashivrata, Nirajanagiri, Nirajanamgey, Nirajanapadyalilakshanavibhakti, Nirajanapakshalilakshanavivikti, Nirajanaprakasha, Nirajanastotra, Nirajanavidhana, Nirajanavidhi.
Ends with: Bharatinirajana, Jayanirajana, Pancanirajana, Panchanirajana, Rajanirajana, Vishnunirajana, Vishveshvaranirajana.
Full-text (+65): Lohabhisara, Lohabhihara, Pancanirajana, Nirunchana, Nirajanavidhi, Nirmancana, Nirajanastotra, Nirajanapadyalilakshanavibhakti, Aratrika, Nirajanadvadashivrata, Nirajanaprakasha, Nirajanagiri, Vishnunirajana, Kanika, Vishveshvaranirajana, Vajinirajanavidhi, Jayanirajana, Vardhamanaka, Bharatinirajana, Arati.
Search found 22 books and stories containing Nirajana, Nīrājanā, Nīrājana, Nirājana, Ni-rajana, Nī-rājana, Nīrajana; (plurals include: Nirajanas, Nīrājanās, Nīrājanas, Nirājanas, rajanas, rājanas, Nīrajanas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Samarangana-sutradhara (Summary) (by D. N. Shukla)
The Agni Purana (by N. Gangadharan)
Chapter 268 - Nīrājana (relating to King’s expedition)
Chapter 57 - Consecration of pitchers
Chapter 236 - The rites preceding the march of a king (raṇa-dīkṣā)
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 3.1.21 < [Chapter 1 - The Worship of Śrī Girirāja]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 47 - The ceremonious entry of Śiva < [Section 2.3 - Rudra-saṃhitā (3): Pārvatī-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 46 - The arrival of the bridegroom < [Section 2.3 - Rudra-saṃhitā (3): Pārvatī-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 10 - Jubilation of the gods at the death of Tāraka < [Section 2.4 - Rudra-saṃhitā (4): Kumāra-khaṇḍa]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 195 - The Glory of Śrīpati < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 25 - The Marriage Rituals < [Section 1 - Kedāra-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 9 - Rites to be Performed on Vatsadvādaśī, [...] Dīpāvalī < [Section 4 - Kārttikamāsa-māhātmya]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 8.10 - Characteristics of Śarad-kāla (autumn season) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]