Mithya, Miṭhyā: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Mithya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Mithyā (मिथ्या) refers to “false (knowledge)”, according to the Halāyudhastotra verse 34-35.—Accordingly, “The visitation of the wives of the distinguished sages in the Pine Park, the oblation with seed in Fire, the twilight dance: Your behaviour is not reprehensible. O Three-eyed one! The doctrines of the world do not touch those who have left worldly life, having passed far beyond the path of those whose minds are afflicted by false knowledge (mithyā-jñānamithyājñānopa). The gods all wear gold and jewels as an ornament on their body. You do not even wear gold the size of a berry on your ear or on your hand. The one whose natural beauty, surpassing the path [of the world], flashes on his own body, has no regard for the extraneous ornaments of ordinary men”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Jvaranirnaya: a rare monograph on diagnosis of fevers from the pre-colonial era

Mithyā (मिथ्या) or Mithyāyoga refers to the “faulty usage (of food/lifestyle)”, according to the Jvaranirṇaya: an Ayurvedic manuscript dealing exclusively with types of jvara (fevers) written by Sri Nārāyaṇa Paṇḍita in the 16th century CE.—The uniqueness of the text is that one can get a comprehensive classification, symptomatology and diagnosis of jvara, all at one place in this text. [...] in the Pṛthakjāta-Prakaraṇa it is mentioned that the cause for the manifestation of a disease is the faulty usage (mithyā-yoga), excessive usage of food and/or lifestyle. It could also be due to sinful acts. Along with this, pathogenesis specific to a disease is also mentioned.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Sydney eScholarship Repository: A Study of the Karma Chapter of the Abhidharmakośa Commentaries

Mithya (मिथ्य) or Mithyadṛṣṭi refers to “wrong views”.—The need for the motivation to precede wrong view is not mentioned explicitly in the Abhidharmakośa commentaries including the Grub bde'i dpyid 'jo, the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya and the mChims mdzod. Nevertheless, the Eighth Karmapa explains wrong view (mithyadṛṣṭi) in these words: [...].

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mithyā (मिथ्या) refers to “wicked (objections)” [?], according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]— [...] (8). The Buddha has no loss of exertion.—He has no loss of exertion.—[...] Moreover, in order to save beings, the Buddha gives up the happiness of his very deep concentration (gambhīrasamādhi) and he saves beings by means of all kinds of bodies (kāya), by all kinds of voices (vāc), by all kinds of means (upāya). Sometimes he borrows dangerous paths; sometimes he eats bad food; sometimes he suffers cold and heat (śītoṣṇa); sometimes he encounters wicked objections (mithyāmithyācodana), harmful words (pāruṣyavāda) and curses. He endures them patiently without disgust. Although he has mastery (vaśita) over all dharmas, the Buddha accomplishes these things without producing laziness (kausīdya)”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

miṭhyā (मिठ्या).—m (Properly muṭhyā) The cross-piece at the top of a rōmaṇī (plough-handle) &c.

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mithyā (मिथ्या).—a ind & ad (S) False, untrue, unreal: also falsely.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mithyā (मिथ्या).—a & ad False, unreal, falsely.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या).—ind. [mith-kyap]

1) Falsely, deceitfully, wrongly, incorrectly; oft. with the force of an adjective; मणौ महानील इति प्रभावादल्पप्रमाणेऽपि यथा न मिथ्या (maṇau mahānīla iti prabhāvādalpapramāṇe'pi yathā na mithyā) R.18.42; यदुवाच न तन्मिथ्या (yaduvāca na tanmithyā) 17.42; मिथ्यैव व्यसनं वदन्ति मृगयामीदृग्विनोदः कुतः (mithyaiva vyasanaṃ vadanti mṛgayāmīdṛgvinodaḥ kutaḥ) Ś.2.5.

2) Invertedly, contrarily.

3) To no purpose, in vain, fruitlessly; मिथ्या कारयते चारैर्घोषणां राक्षसाधिपः (mithyā kārayate cārairghoṣaṇāṃ rākṣasādhipaḥ) Bhaṭṭikāvya 8.44; मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति (mithyaiṣa vyavasāyaste prakṛtistvāṃ niyokṣyati) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 18.59. (mithyā vad-vac to tell a falsehood, lie. mithyā kṛ

1) to falsify.

2) to contradict. mithyā bhū to turn out false, be false. mithyā grah to misunderstand, mistake.) At the beginning of comp. मिथ्या (mithyā) may be translated by 'false, untrue, unreal, sham, pretended, feigned' &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या).—Ind. 1. Falsely, untruly. 2. In vain. E. mith to injure, aff. kyap .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या).— (vb. mith), adv. Falsely, [Pañcatantra] 7, 16; untruly, feigned, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 9, 11; wrong, [Pañcatantra] 206, 11; what does not concern one, [Pañcatantra] 9, 24; in vain, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 6, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या).—[adverb] wrongly, falsely, in vain. With brū, vac, etc. speak falsely, tell a lie; [with] kṛ make false, cheat; contradict, deny, [with] kṛ & na keep (a given word).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mithyā (मिथ्या):—[from mith] a ind. (contracted from mithūyā) invertedly, contrarily, incorrectly, wrongly, improperly, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc. (with [Causal], of √kṛ, to pronounce a word wrongly ‘once’ [P.] or ‘repeatedly’ [Ātmanepada] [Pāṇini 1-3, 71]; with pra-√car, to act wrongly, [Manu-smṛti ix, 284]; with pra-√vṛt, to behave improperly, [Mahābhārata iii, 2414]);—falsely, deceitfully, untruly, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (often with √brū, vac or vad, to speak falsely, utter a lie; with √kṛ, to deny, [Mahābhārata]; to break one’s word, with na-√kṛ, to keep it), [Rāmāyaṇa];—with √bhū, to turn out or prove false, [Mahābhārata];—not in reality, only apparently, [Madhusūdana];

—to no purpose, fruitlessly, in vain, [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc. ([in the beginning of a compound] often = false, untrue, sham; Mithyā is personified as the wife of A-dharma, [Kalki-purāṇa])

2) b etc. See [column]l.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या):—adv. Falsely.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mithya (मिथ्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Miccha, Micchā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mithya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या):—(a) untrue, false, pseudo-; sham, spurious; delusory; (nm) untruth; falsehood; illusion; —[kopa] sham anger; ~[caryā] hypocrisy, sham conduct; ~[cāra] see [mithyācāra; -jñāna] illusion, illusory knowledge; —[dṛṣṭi] false view; ~[pratijña] one who does not keep one’s pledge; ~[bhāṣī] a liar, mendacious; ~[mati] ignorant; misunderstanding; erroneous; —[vacana/vāda] mendacity, false utterance; falsehood; ~[vādī] mendacious, untruthful, false.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mithya (ಮಿಥ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] that which is false (as a statement, object, etc. though presented or believed as truth).

2) [noun] the state or fact of being mislead by the appearance or image of something; illusion.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Mithyā (मिथ्या):—adj. mendacious; false; untrue; illusory; delusory; deceptive;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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