Kunkuma, Kuṅkumā, Kuṅkuma, Kuṃkumā, Kuṃkuma, Kumkuma: 34 definitions

Introduction:

Kunkuma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—A sweetly-flavored reddish cosmetic powder which is thrown on the bodies of worshipable persons, also used by married women to decorate their foreheads.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to:—A reddish powder or liquid used by married women to apply to the part in their hair. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) refers to:—A reddish powder. (cf. Glossary page from Arcana-dīpikā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kuṃkumā (कुंकुमा) is the consort of Mīnanātha (also known as Piṅgalanātha), an incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Her name can also be spelled Kuṅkumā. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kuṅkumā (कुङ्कुमा) is the consort of Mīnanātha (also known as Piṅgalanātha), an incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Her name can also be spelled Kuṃkumā. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) refers to “vermillion”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult. Accordingly, “O goddess, Svacchanda is in the middle, within the abode of the triangle. Very powerful, he has five faces with three times five flaming eyes. [...] O beautiful lady, this, the western one, is yellow like vermillion [i.e., kuṃkuma] mixed with musk. Divine, it generates great energy. (The southern face) is somewhat fierce with large sharp teeth and long red eyes. It is blue like a blue lotus and blue collyrium. Beautiful and fierce, he wears a gem and a snake and his hair is brown. He is called Aghora, contemplating (him) he bestows success in every enterprise”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kuṅkuma is referred to often in connection with the worship of the deities (verses 417, 494, 550). Bilhaṇa and Kalhaṇa also speak of its abundance in the valley of Kaśmīra. Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron flowers”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] O my beloved, beautiful woman, clouds will not reach the place where I have to make an abode for you. [...] O Goddess of Devas, there are many beautiful blue lotuses emitting sweet fragrance. On the banks there are many grass lands, small and big trees and the saffron flowers (kuṅkuma) increasing the fragrance of the waters with which the lakes are full”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “vermillion”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The colour of coral, she is the Triangle and her form is subtle. At dawn in the morning I praise the red Mother, the form of Kubjikā. At midday I praise the youthful Kulakubjikā who, the colour of vermillion water [i.e., kuṅkuma-udaka-rūpā], is Kaulinī whose form is Kuṇḍalinī. Dark blue and red, with three eyes, large teeth and face deformed, at dusk I worship the great Aged One, the Kubjikā of liberation”.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) or Kuṃkumatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Kuṃkuma belonging to the Garuḍa class.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, which is mentioned in verse 3.15 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Passionate (and) lovely women with exuberant thighs, breasts, and buttocks take away the cold, their body being hot with incense, saffron [viz., kuṅkuma], and youth. [...]”.

Note: The instrumental dvandvadhūpakuṅkumayauvanaiḥ”—“with incense, saffron, and youth” has been disconnected from its governing noun, separated into its three components, and converted by the requisite additions and alterations into a series of subject attributes: dhūpa (“incense”) becoming spos-kyis bdugs (“fumigated with incense”), kuṅkuma (“saffron”)—gur-gum-gyis byugs (“anointed with saffron”), and yauvana (“youth”)—gźon (“young”). At the same time, dhūpa and kuṅkuma have been interchanged, —sllos (for spos) in C and probably also bdug (for bdugs) in CD are xylographical errors.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to the medicinal plant known as Crocus sativus, sty./stg., and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Kuṅkuma. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to the medicinal plant Crocus sativus L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kuṅkuma] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Crocus sativus L. (Kuṅkuma) is known as Kunduru according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Crocus sativus Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kuṅkuma] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) is the name of an Apabhraṃśa metre classified as Dvipadi (metres with two lines in a stanza) discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Kuṃkuma has 27 mātrās in a line. Kuṃkuma and Karpūra together are known as the Ullālas and were held in great favour by the bards of Magadha.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to a “crimson color” [?], according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If in Śiśira (February, March) the sun be of copper colour or red black, if, in Vasanta (April, May), blue crimson [i.e., kuṅkuma], if, in Grīṣma (June, July), slightly white and of gold color, if, in Varṣā (August, September), white, if, in Śarada (October, November), of the colour of the centre of the lotus, if, in Hemanta (December, January), of blood color, mankind will be happy. If, in Varṣā (August, September), the rays of the sun be soft, mankind will be happy even though the sun should be of any of the colors mentioned above”.

2) Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 10).—Accordingly, “If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Viśākhā, the Trigartas, the Chinese and the Kulūtas, saffron [i.e., kuṅkuma], lac, crops and everything of bright, red or crimson colour will suffer. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Anurādhā, the Kulūtas, the Taṅgaṇas, the Khasas, the people of Kāśmīra, ministers, drivers and bell-ringers will suffer, and friends will turn into enemies”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

1) Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron” representing an ingredient for creating the forehead mark (tilaka), according to Hemavijaya Gaṇin’s Kathāratnākara (A.D. 1600).—Accordingly, “The Brāhmaṇa, who is especially well-versed in the whole range of astral science, wore a forehead mark made of saffron and rice-grains [i.e., vinirmita-kuṅkuma-taṇḍula-tilaka]—{The round vessel is made of ten palas of copper. In the ghaṭikā [bowl] the height should be made of six aṅgulas. The diameter there should be made to the measure of twelve aṅgulas. The good cherish a water clock that holds sixty palas of water}—dropped the bowl, made fully according to the aforementioned prescriptions, in a basin filled with clean water at the time of the setting of the divine sun”.

2) Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, representing the material to be used for the images (pratimā) of the planet Mercury, according to the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3).—[Images of and offerings to grahas]—The materials which are used to compose the images (pratimā) of the grahas are prescribed: red copper (Sun), crystal (Moon), red sandal-wood (Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Venus), iron (Saturn), lead (Rāhu) and white copper (Ketu) [i.e., kāṃsya]. Such prescriptions for the planetary images are not found in gṛhya texts except in the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3) where the materials are almost the same as those in Yājñavalkyasmṛti, the only difference being the use of saffron [i.e., kuṅkuma] for Mercury instead of gold. According to the Śāntikalpa (13.3), red copper (Sun and Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Moon and Venus), and black iron (Saturn, Rāhu, and Ketu) are used.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”: a product of flowers (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. It can also be spelled like Kuṃkuma and it is also known as Kesara. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

The flowers and their products (e.g., Kuṅkuma) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to a preparation of turmeric and chunam (lime). This is regularly used for the tilaka on the forehead, for decorating elephants, etc. It is to be noted that saffron is spoken of as ‘red’, not ‘yellow’. Though it produces a yellow color in puddings, etc., the powder from which the dye is made is an orange-red, made from the tip of the stigma. The blossoms are purple. The kuṅkuma preparation is a decided red. Watt (“The Commercial Products of India”), p. 429 f. Kaṇṭakita is used, of course, with double meaning. The bread fruit (panasa) has a spiny rind. Both the tree and the fruit are very large.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kunkuma in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kuṅkuma : (nt.) saffron.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma, (nt.) (cp. Sk. kuṅkuma) saffron Miln. 382; Vism. 241. (Page 218)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṅkuma (कुंकुम).—m S Saffron, Crocus sativus. 2 n A powder. See the popular kuṅkūṃ. Ex. āpulē niḍhaḷīñcēṃ kuṃ0 kāḍhilēṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuṅkuma (कुंकुम).—n A powder prepared from turmeric coloured with lemon-juice, &c. It is rubbed by married women on the forehead. kuṅkūṃ jāṇēṃ To suffer the wane or departure of its glory–used of a business &c. kuṅkūṃ baḷakaṭha hōṇēṃ To have the destiny of an abiding kuṅkūṃ i. e., to be able to preserve one's husband long in life. kuṅkū sarasa hōṇēṃ-karaṇēṃ To stand fast in the enjoyment of wife-(unwidowed) honours.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—

1) Saffron; लग्नकुङ्कुमकेसरान् (lagnakuṅkumakesarān) (skandhān); R. 4.67; Ṛs.4.2;5.9; Bh.1.1,25.

2) Saffron paint; °पत्ररेखावैदग्ध्यं जहति कपोलकुङ्कुमानि (patrarekhāvaidagdhyaṃ jahati kapolakuṅkumāni) Māl.1.37.

Derivable forms: kuṅkumam (कुङ्कुमम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—m.

(-maḥ) Saffron, (Crocus sativus.) E. kuki to take, and umak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—n. Saffron, Crocus sativus, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—[masculine] saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम):—n. saffron (Crocus sativus, the plant and the pollen of the flowers), [Suśruta; Raghuvaṃśa; Bhartṛhari etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम):—(maḥ) 1. m. Saffron.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kuṃkama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kunkuma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kunkuma in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम):—(nf) saffron; rouge.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kuṃkuma (ಕುಂಕುಮ):—

1) [noun] = ಕುಂಕುಮಕೇಸರಿ [kumkumakesari].

2) [noun] the tree Mallotus philippensis (= Rottlera tinctoria) of Euphorbiaceae family; scarlet croton.

3) [noun] a bright-red or slightly orange powder applied by women (other than widows) on their foreheads, as an auspicious sign and also used in worshipping a deity; vermilion powder.

4) [noun] a disease that reduces the grains of wheat into red coloured powder.

5) [noun] (fig.) the fortune of a woman of applying the saffron powder on her forehead as a sign of her husband being alive, considered as the most auspicious thing by the Hindu women.

6) [noun] a person who is the pride of the society.

7) [noun] ಕುಂಕುಮ ಹಚ್ಚು [kumkuma haccu] kuŋkuma haccu to apply saffron powder on the forehead; 2. (fig.) to bind (a girl) by a promise of marriage.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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