Kunkuma, Kuṃkumā, Kuṃkuma, Kumkuma, Kuṅkumā, Kuṅkuma: 23 definitions

Introduction

Kunkuma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—A sweetly-flavored reddish cosmetic powder which is thrown on the bodies of worshipable persons, also used by married women to decorate their foreheads.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to:—A reddish powder or liquid used by married women to apply to the part in their hair. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) refers to:—A reddish powder. (cf. Glossary page from Arcana-dīpikā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kuṃkumā (कुंकुमा) is the consort of Mīnanātha (also known as Piṅgalanātha), an incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Her name can also be spelled Kuṅkumā. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kuṅkumā (कुङ्कुमा) is the consort of Mīnanātha (also known as Piṅgalanātha), an incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Her name can also be spelled Kuṃkumā. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kuṅkuma is referred to often in connection with the worship of the deities (verses 417, 494, 550). Bilhaṇa and Kalhaṇa also speak of its abundance in the valley of Kaśmīra. Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron flowers”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] O my beloved, beautiful woman, clouds will not reach the place where I have to make an abode for you. [...] O Goddess of Devas, there are many beautiful blue lotuses emitting sweet fragrance. On the banks there are many grass lands, small and big trees and the saffron flowers (kuṅkuma) increasing the fragrance of the waters with which the lakes are full”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) or Kuṃkumatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Kuṃkuma belonging to the Garuḍa class.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, which is mentioned in verse 3.15 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Passionate (and) lovely women with exuberant thighs, breasts, and buttocks take away the cold, their body being hot with incense, saffron [viz., kuṅkuma], and youth. [...]”.

Note: The instrumental dvandvadhūpakuṅkumayauvanaiḥ”—“with incense, saffron, and youth” has been disconnected from its governing noun, separated into its three components, and converted by the requisite additions and alterations into a series of subject attributes: dhūpa (“incense”) becoming spos-kyis bdugs (“fumigated with incense”), kuṅkuma (“saffron”)—gur-gum-gyis byugs (“anointed with saffron”), and yauvana (“youth”)—gźon (“young”). At the same time, dhūpa and kuṅkuma have been interchanged, —sllos (for spos) in C and probably also bdug (for bdugs) in CD are xylographical errors.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to the medicinal plant known as Crocus sativus, sty./stg., and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Kuṅkuma. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to the medicinal plant Crocus sativus L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kuṅkuma] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Crocus sativus L. (Kuṅkuma) is known as Kunduru according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Crocus sativus Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kuṅkuma] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) is the name of an Apabhraṃśa metre classified as Dvipadi (metres with two lines in a stanza) discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Kuṃkuma has 27 mātrās in a line. Kuṃkuma and Karpūra together are known as the Ullālas and were held in great favour by the bards of Magadha.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”: a product of flowers (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. It can also be spelled like Kuṃkuma and it is also known as Kesara. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

The flowers and their products (eg., Kuṅkuma) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kunkuma in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kuṅkuma : (nt.) saffron.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma, (nt.) (cp. Sk. kuṅkuma) saffron Miln. 382; Vism. 241. (Page 218)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṅkuma (कुंकुम).—m S Saffron, Crocus sativus. 2 n A powder. See the popular kuṅkūṃ. Ex. āpulē niḍhaḷīñcēṃ kuṃ0 kāḍhilēṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuṅkuma (कुंकुम).—n A powder prepared from turmeric coloured with lemon-juice, &c. It is rubbed by married women on the forehead. kuṅkūṃ jāṇēṃ To suffer the wane or departure of its glory–used of a business &c. kuṅkūṃ baḷakaṭha hōṇēṃ To have the destiny of an abiding kuṅkūṃ i. e., to be able to preserve one's husband long in life. kuṅkū sarasa hōṇēṃ-karaṇēṃ To stand fast in the enjoyment of wife-(unwidowed) honours.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—

1) Saffron; लग्नकुङ्कुमकेसरान् (lagnakuṅkumakesarān) (skandhān); R. 4.67; Ṛs.4.2;5.9; Bh.1.1,25.

2) Saffron paint; °पत्ररेखावैदग्ध्यं जहति कपोलकुङ्कुमानि (patrarekhāvaidagdhyaṃ jahati kapolakuṅkumāni) Māl.1.37.

Derivable forms: kuṅkumam (कुङ्कुमम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—m.

(-maḥ) Saffron, (Crocus sativus.) E. kuki to take, and umak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—n. Saffron, Crocus sativus, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—[masculine] saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम):—n. saffron (Crocus sativus, the plant and the pollen of the flowers), [Suśruta; Raghuvaṃśa; Bhartṛhari etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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