Kunkuma, aka: Kuṅkumā, Kuṅkuma; 9 Definition(s)

Introduction

Kunkuma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kuṅkuma is referred to often in connection with the worship of the deities (verses 417, 494, 550). Bilhaṇa and Kalhaṇa also speak of its abundance in the valley of Kaśmīra. Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Kuṅkumā (कुङ्कुमा) is the consort of Mīnanātha (also known as Piṅgalanātha), an incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Her name can also be spelled Kuṃkumā. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—A sweetly-flavored reddish cosmetic powder which is thrown on the bodies of worshipable persons, also used by married women to decorate their foreheads.

(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम) refers to “saffron”: a product of flowers (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. It can also be spelled like Kuṃkuma and it is also known as Kesara. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

The flowers and their products (eg., Kuṅkuma) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.

(Source): archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

kuṅkuma : (nt.) saffron.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kuṅkuma, (nt.) (cp. Sk. kuṅkuma) saffron Miln. 382; Vism. 241. (Page 218)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

kuṅkuma (कुंकुम).—m S Saffron, Crocus sativus. 2 n A powder. See the popular kuṅkūṃ. Ex. āpulē niḍhaḷīñcēṃ kuṃ0 kāḍhilēṃ ||.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṅkuma (कुंकुम).—n A powder prepared from turmeric coloured with lemon-juice, &c. It is rubbed by married women on the forehead. kuṅkūṃ jāṇēṃ To suffer the wane or departure of its glory–used of a business &c. kuṅkūṃ baḷakaṭha hōṇēṃ To have the destiny of an abiding kuṅkūṃ i. e., to be able to preserve one's husband long in life. kuṅkū sarasa hōṇēṃ-karaṇēṃ To stand fast in the enjoyment of wife-(unwidowed) honours.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṅkuma (कुङ्कुम).—

1) Saffron; लग्नकुङ्कुमकेसरान् (lagnakuṅkumakesarān) (skandhān); R. 4.67; Ṛs.4.2;5.9; Bh.1.1,25.

2) Saffron paint; °पत्ररेखावैदग्ध्यं जहति कपोलकुङ्कुमानि (patrarekhāvaidagdhyaṃ jahati kapolakuṅkumāni) Māl.1.37.

Derivable forms: kuṅkumam (कुङ्कुमम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

Search found 16 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Trinakunkuma
Tṛṇakuṅkuma (तृणकुङ्कुम).—a variety of perfume. Derivable forms: tṛṇakuṅkumam (तृणकुङ्कुमम्).Tṛ...
Gramyakunkuma
Grāmyakuṅkuma (ग्राम्यकुङ्कुम).—safflower. Derivable forms: grāmyakuṅkumam (ग्राम्यकुङ्कुमम्).G...
Dhana
Dhānā (धाना) refers to a “flattened rice”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Ka...
Shanmukha
sanmukha (सन्मुख).—a Fronting, opposite to.
Ankurarpana
Aṅkurārpaṇa (अङ्कुरार्पण) is the name of a ceremony in Śaktism described in the Śāradātilaka-ta...
Subrahmaṇya
Subrahmaṇya (सुब्रह्मण्य).—1) an epithet of Kārtikeya. 2) Name of one of the sixteen priests em...
Kusumba
kusumba (कुसुंब) [-bā, -बा].—m Dried flowers of safflower; also the dye prepared from them.
Ashtagandha
Aṣṭagandha (अष्टगन्ध).—Akil (Eaglewood), Candana (Sandal), Guggulu (Indian Bdellium), Māñci (Ja...
Dravana
Drāvaṇa (द्रावण, “softening”) refers to one of the “seven means” (saptopāya) to be performed wh...
Purvamnaya
Pūrvāmnāya (पूर्वाम्नाय).—This āmnāya is described as the Yoginīmatasāra present in bo...
Kumkuma
Kuṃkuma (कुंकुम) or Kuṃkumatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to...
Kunkum
kuṅkūṃ (कुंकूं).—n A powder prepared from turmeric coloured with lemon-juice, &c. It is rubbed ...
Minanatha
Mīnanātha (मीननाथ) or Matsyendranāhta refers to the third representation of the nine navan...
Talavatim
taḷavaṭīṃ (तळवटीं).—prep Below, under.
Agnishekhara
Agniśekhara (अग्निशेखर).—a. fire-crested. -raḥ Name of the कुसुम्भ, कुङ्कुम (kusumbha, kuṅkuma)...

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