Kshira, Kṣīra: 34 definitions


Kshira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṣīra can be transliterated into English as Ksira or Kshira, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands of the Seven Oceans.—Kṣīra: the Sarpa-śīrṣa hands moved upwards and downwards (vyāvṛttacāpaveṣṭitau). Note: Representing the up and down motion of waves.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “milk” representing one of the five Pañcagavya (five cow-products), as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.16. Accordingly, “[...] the ceremonial ablution of the phallic emblem (liṅga) with Pañcagavya on Sundays is specially recommended. Pañcagavya is the compound of cow’s urine (gojala), dung (gomaya), milk (kṣīra), curd (dadhi) and ghee (ājya). Milk, curd and ghee can severally be used with honey and molasses. The offering of rice cooked in cow’s milk must be made with the syllable Om”.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “condensed milk”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Gorasa seems to have been an important item of diet. Mention is made of condensed milk called kṣīra and of food preparations mixed with milk (verses 440, 444, 532, 708, 719). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kṣīra (क्षीर).—Ārṣeya pravara (Aṅgiras).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 6.

1b) One of the eight Saubhāgyam.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 60. 9 and 27.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “cow-milk”. It is one of the six products of the cow, used in the worshop of the liṅga (known as goṣaḍaṅgavidhi), according to the Śivadharmottarapurāṇa

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “milk”, according to the Mataṅgapārameśvara (with Rāmakaṇṭha’s commentary).—Accordingly, “Having worshipped the Lord, he should oblate into the fire at the three junctures of the day a thousand pieces of Udumbara-wood smeared with the three [sweet substances]. Consuming [only] milk (kṣīra-āśin), he should make oblations [in this manner] for seven days. He will become one who has accomplished the vidyāvrata”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “(white) milk” (used for writing mantras, etc.), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.39-45]—“[...] Outside of the lotus, [the Mantrin] should draw the very white śaśimaṇḍala, and outside of that [he is to draw] a square endowed with the mark of a vajra. Thus, having written [all this] with saffron, bile, and white milk (kṣīrakṣīreṇa sitayā tathā) he should worship in peace with an all white [offering]. In this way, he [gives] edible offerings and liquor to the appropriate, voracious form [of the deity]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “products made of milk”, which is mentioned in verse 3.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Having thereupon bathed according to ritual—with the oil removed by an astringent—,rubbed (one’s body) with musk-charged saffron, (and) fumigated (oneself) with aloe-wood one shall (at last) turn to rich, broths, fat meat, rum, barm, arrack, delicious products made of wheat, (rice-)flour, urd-beans, sugarcane, and milk [viz., kṣīra], [...]”.

Note: Ikṣu (“sugar-cane”) has been placed after Kṣīra (“milk”).

Kṣīra (“milk”) is of eight kinds, according to the Haridas Sanskrit Series edition with a couplet of unknown origin. Accordingly:—“Coming from a cow (gavya), buffalo (māhiṣa), goat (āja), camel (kārabha), woman (straiṇa), sheep (āvika), elephant (aibha), and solid-hoofed animal (aikaśapha): thus milk [viz., kṣīra] (is) held (to be) eightfold”. (cf. verse 5.20ff of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) and Suśrutasaṃhitā verse I.45.47)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kṣīrā (क्षीरा) is another name for Kākolī, a medicinal plant identified with Roscoea purpurea from the Zingiberaceae or “ginger family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.25-27 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Kṣīrā and Kākolī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to an “milk” and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—According to Ayurvedic treatises, milk was considered a complete diet and is recommended as the most nourishing food (see Bhelasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna XXVIII.17-18). Caraka mentions the milk of cows, buffaloes, goats, mares, sheeps, elephants, camels and women which were commonly used (see Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna I.106). According to Suśruta, the milk and ghee of a cow were considered the best (see Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 6.336). He also states that the milk of buffaloes was considered good for certain persons who have a good digestive system. Suśruta says that unboiled milk was considered heavy while freshly milked warm milk was considered wholesome. Over boiled milk was considered difficult to digest.

The Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha (Sūtrasthāna VI.62) states that fresh warm milk was considered wholesome as nectar itself. Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya (VIII.508) states that milk is recommended as a suitable diet for the convalescent, the old, children and ascetics. Milk was used in various forms referred to in Mānasollāsa (3.1567). Agnipurāṇa (164.10) describes certain sweet preparations such as kṣīraprakāra, kṣīravaṭa and kṣīrayaṣṭikā wherein milk is the principal ingredient.

Kṣīra or “milk” is mutually incompatible (viruddhāhāra) with the following: Ānūpamāmṣa (the meat of animals living in marshy lands) and fruit of Lakuca (the fruit of bread-fruit tree), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala in the dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana, which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises.

Kṣīra (milk) is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., rasāla (a curd drink)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kṣīra (milk)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Kṣīra (क्षीर):—Latex of plants; milky exudation

2) Milk; Synonym of Dugdha.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to a “milk” (drawn from the human breast), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).— Accordingly, “Maṇi Ketu is a comet which appears for only 3 hours occasionally; it possesses an invisible disc and appears in the west; its tail is straight and white and it resembles a line of milk [i.e., kṣīra-dhāra] drawn from a human breast. There will be happiness in the land from the very time of its appearance for four and a half months; reptiles and venomous creatures will come into existence”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “milk” and represents items offered to the nine planets (navagraha), according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 302-303: Faggots to be burned]—These two verses prescribe different faggots to be burned for grahas with offerings of honey, ghee, dadhi, and milk [i.e., kṣīra]. It is interesting to note that some of the faggots (i.e. parāśa, khadira, pippala, and śamī) mentioned here are also used in the Suśrutasaṃhitā in the context (Uttaratantra chapters 27-37) of curing the diseases caused by grahas, which, in this case, are not planetary. [verse 304-305: Cooked rice (odana) to be offered to grahas]

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to a “preparation of milk”, according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “He who desires a mighty rain must perform this rite ‘the great-cloud-circle’ in an open space, overspread by a blue canopy, shaded by a blue banner, on a clear spot of earth; [...] Even the sea may overflow its shore, but his auspicious word ‘Rain’ fails not; nay, he must sustain himself on the three sweets, ghee, honey and sugar, and by rice, sugar, milk (kṣīra), etc., joined with all virtues of character, and repeat this; so it must needs be effectual, according to the word of the Lord of Speakers. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to a “milk”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a parasol, lotus, banner, muraja drum, flagpole, ornament, a woman of the court, fish, milk (kṣīra), the best curd, wine, blazing fire, and fruits [are seen], then there are victory, extraordinary increase of grain, property, [the number of] sons, and other [merits], and the completion of duties. [...]”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Kṣīra (क्षीर) refers to “milk”, according to the purification (śodhana) of the Pañcagavya (five cow products) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] Oṃ purified with conch-water Hūṃ. [Give water to patrons.] Cow urine, cow dung, milk (kṣīra), curd, ghee, holy grass, (and) water, The forementioned Pañcagavya and holy grass purifies the body. Oṃ purified with conch-water Hūṃ. [Give water again]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kṣīra (क्षीर, “milky”) or Kṣīrasāgara refers to one of the “seven oceans” (sāgara) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 126). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., kṣīra). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Kṣīra (क्षीर, “milk”) refers to one of the ten classifications of food (āhāra), also known as vikṛtis, according to the 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.130) by Hemacandra. Kṣīra refers to milk, which may be of five kinds according to whether it comes from the cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, or camel.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: S.V.U.Oriental Journal, Vol. XI, Jan-Dec 1968, Parts 1&2

Kṣīra is the name of a major historic river of Āndhradeśa (Andhra country).—The evolution of Āndhra culture through the ages in its manifold facets succoured by its rivers presents a large diversity nevertheless wiih an all pervading underlying unity. The Brahmakuṇḍi or Guṇḍlakamma unlike several other larger rivers which are tributaries, has an independent course and falls into the Bay of Bengal. It had more in common with the larger rivers except in its length where it resembles the minor rivers (e.g., Kṣīra). On either side of the holy river, flourished kingdoms of the Yādavas of Addanki and of the Reḍḍis subsequently. Centres of pilgrimage, eg., Kanuparti had their heyday. The region and the river are celebrated in the records and literature of the Reḍḍis and relics of bygone glory are seen even today.

Source: Epigraphia Indica Vol. 36: Tenali plates of eastern Chālukya Vijayāditya I grant

Kṣīra (क्षीर) is the name of a garden (ārāma) found witin Triliṅga: an ancient Sanskrit name of the Andhra country, accoriding to verses on the Annavarappāḍu plates of Kāṭaya Vema Reḍḍi. The Reḍḍis (Reddy) were an ancient Telugu dynasty from the 14th century who brought about a golden age of the Andhra country. According to the plates, their captial was named Addaṅki (Addaṃki) which resembled Heaven (Amarāvatī) by the beauty of its horses, the donors and the women. King Vema, son of Anna-bhūpati of the Paṇṭa family, can be identified with Anavema of the inscription at Śrīśaila.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kṣīra.—cf. a-puṣpa-kṣīra-grahaṇīya (IE 8-5); milk which the villagers (probably, the milkmen) were obliged to supply to the king or landlord on occasions and to the touring officials. Note: kṣīra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kshira in India is the name of a plant defined with Plumeria rubra in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Plumeria aurantiaca Steud. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (1938)
· Bot. Commelins (1983)
· Darwiniana (2005)
· Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2726)
· Hortus Kewensis (1811)
· Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique (1812)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kshira, for example health benefits, side effects, diet and recipes, chemical composition, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣīra (क्षीर).—n (S) Milk. 2 Water. 3 The milk or white sap of plants. 4 f (Popularly khīra) Ricemilk.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣīra (क्षीर).—n Milk. Water. f Rice-milk.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣīra (क्षीर).—

1) Milk; हंसो हि क्षीरमादत्ते तन्मिश्रा वर्जयत्यपः (haṃso hi kṣīramādatte tanmiśrā varjayatyapaḥ) Ś.6.28.

2) The milky juice or sap of trees, exudation; resin; ये तत्क्षीरस्रुतिसुरभयो दक्षिणेन प्रवृत्ताः (ye tatkṣīrasrutisurabhayo dakṣiṇena pravṛttāḥ) Meghadūta 19; Kumārasambhava 1.9.

3) Water; तिर्यग्वाहाश्च क्षीरिणः (tiryagvāhāśca kṣīriṇaḥ) Rām.2.15.6.

-raḥ See क्षीरस्वामिन् (kṣīrasvāmin); क्षीराभिधाच्छब्दविद्योपाध्यायात्संभृतश्रुतः (kṣīrābhidhācchabdavidyopādhyāyātsaṃbhṛtaśrutaḥ) Rāj. T.4. 489.

-rā -rī Name of several plants containing a milky sap.

-rī A dish prepared with milk (Mar. khīra).

Derivable forms: kṣīraḥ (क्षीरः).

See also (synonyms): ra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣīra (क्षीर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Milk. f. (-rī) A small shrub (Asclepia rosea;) also dugdhikā. 2. A tree, a species of Mimosa, (M. kauki, Rox) also kṣīrikā. 3. Gigantic swallow-wort. 4. Euphorbia; several kinds, particularly, E. hirta. E. thymifolia, and E. chamæsyce. E. ghas to eat, īran Unadi affix; the fem. nouns are derived from kṣīra milk. the plants yielding a milky juice or sap, upon expression or incision.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣīra (क्षीर).—Milk, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣīra (क्षीर).—[neuter] milk (also of plants).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣīra (क्षीर):—n. ([from] √śyai?; [from] √kṣar, or √ghas, [Nirukta, by Yāska ii, 5]; [from] √ghas, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 34]; [gana] ardharcādi), milk, thickened milk, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Mahābhārata xiii, 3700])

2) the milky juice or sap of plants, [Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Meghadūta 106; Śakuntalā] ([varia lectio])

3) = -śīrṣa (q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) m. Name of a grammarian (cf. -svāmin), [Rājataraṅgiṇī iv, 488]

6) Kṣīrā (क्षीरा):—[from kṣīra] f. Name of a plant (= kakolī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣīra (क्षीर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Water; milk; frumenty. f. () Asclepia rosea or euphorbia; a mimosa tree.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṣīra (क्षीर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Khīra, Chīra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kshira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṣīra (ಕ್ಷೀರ):—

1) [noun] milk a) a white or yellowish emulsion secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals for suckling their young and usu. consisting of fats, proteins, sugars, vitamins, and minerals suspended in water; b) cow’s milk or, sometimes, that of goats, camels, etc., drunk by humans as a food or used to make butter, cheese, casein products, etc.; c) any liquid like this, as the juice of various plants or fruits (e.g., coconut milk) or any of various emulsions.

2) [noun] a solution of sugar and water boiled together, to which some flavouring is often added; a syrup.

3) [noun] water.

4) [noun] a cloud.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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