Krishnavarna, Kṛṣṇavarṇa, Krishna-varna: 16 definitions
Krishnavarna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Kṛṣṇavarṇa can be transliterated into English as Krsnavarna or Krishnavarna, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण).—Another name for the Śūdra caste.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 15. 44.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण) or simply Kṛṣṇa refers to a “black color”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the disc should be of the colour of the sky at dawn of day, there will be famine and drought and birds will suffer. If red-black, there will be prosperity and plenty in the land but slight rain. If the disc be of the colour of the pigeon or of blood colour or of the colour of gold or yellow-black, mankind will suffer from starvation. If again the disc be black [i.e., kṛṣṇavarṇa] or as said above, of the colour of the pigeon, the Śūdras will suffer from disease”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण) refers to “that which has a black color”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “The sacred seat Jāla is the Unmanifest. It is well placed in the southern quarter. It is black and called [i.e., kṛṣṇavarṇa] the most excellent. The mother (avvā) is the venerable lioness Kālikā. It bestows the boon of the mantra of nine (letters i.e. Navātman). The tree is called Bilva. The cave is called Ratnā; it contains the best Rule and is well known by the name 'Vīra'. The cremation ground is called Laguḍa. [...]”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (p)
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण) or Kṛṣṇavarṇaka refers to “one who is black in colour”, and is mentioned in the meditation on Garuḍa in the Pañcabhūtamaṇḍala, according to the second chapter of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā (Toxicology).—Accordingly, text text dictates that a Garuḍa-upāsaka, the aspirant, must meditate on Garuḍa of the following form—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā describes the different forms of Garuḍa in the five bhūta-maṇḍalas on which the aspirant has to meditate upon to cure the snake-bite victim from the poison which could have killed him. Garuḍa as the Vāyu element, the lord of air, is black in colour (kṛṣṇavarṇaka) and is seated in a hexagon with bindu.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण) refers to “(having) a dark-blue color”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Being in the heart with mud, a universal petaled lotus, Above the pericarp of the lotus, a moon and sun mandala, Above that, observe a Hūṃ, that changes into a two armed Saṃvara. Venerable, dark-blue color (kṛṣṇavarṇa), one face, three eyes, standing in archer's pose. [...]”.Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण) refers to a “black (color)”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while describing the Merit Circle (guṇacakra)]: “[...] He should make [mantras of all Yoginīs] on all circles [in this manner]. [...] There are east, north, west, and south divisions in all [four layers]. He should make [the four divisions] blackish-dark (kṛṣṇavarṇa) blue, green, red, and yellow in color, [respectively] [kṛṣṇanīlaharidraktā pītavarṇā tu kārayet]. The Innate maṇḍala (viz., the Innate Layer) is thus [described]. As [the whole maṇḍala is] a fourfold circle (viz., comprises four layers), he should subsequently make the Dharma, Enjoyment, and Emanation Layers in order. [...]”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
1) Krishnavarna in India is the name of a plant defined with Sapindus emarginatus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Sapindus emarginatus Hort. Alger. (among others).
2) Krishnavarna is also identified with Sapindus trifoliatus It has the synonym Sapindus emarginatus Hort. Alger. (etc.).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Taxon (1982)
· Catalogue des Plantes de Madagascar, Sapind. (1931)
· Bulletin de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou (1863)
· Rev. Hortic. (1895)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Krishnavarna, for example health benefits, extract dosage, side effects, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण).—n (S kṛṣṇa Black, varṇa Color.) Used with hōṇēṃ & karaṇēṃ. A phrase expressing the removal out of sight, by death &c., of a hateful object. Ex. tyā gulāmācēṃ jyā divasīṃ kṛ0 hōīla tēvhāṃ mī yēīna.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) black colour.
2) Name of Rāhu.
3) a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः (viḍūruṅghriśritakṛṣṇavarṇaḥ) Bhāgavata 2.1.37.
Derivable forms: kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ (कृष्णवर्णः).
Kṛṣṇavarṇa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms kṛṣṇa and varṇa (वर्ण).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-rṇa-rṇā-rṇaṃ) 1. Black or dark blue, A Sudra. 2. A name of Rahu n,
(-rṇaṃ) The colour black. E. kṛṣṇa and varṇa colour.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण).—[adjective] black-coloured.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण):—[=kṛṣṇa-varṇa] [from kṛṣṇa] mfn. of a black colour, dark-blue, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) Kṛṣṇavarṇā (कृष्णवर्णा):—[=kṛṣṇa-varṇā] [from kṛṣṇa-varṇa > kṛṣṇa] f. Name of one of the mothers in Skanda’s retinue, [Mahābhārata ix, 2642.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kṛṣṇavarṇa (कृष्णवर्ण):—[kṛṣṇa-varṇa] (rṇaḥ-rṇā-rṇaṃ) a. Black.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] black colour.
2) [noun] dark-blue colour.
3) [noun] a man of dark complexion.
4) [noun] the fourth of the four major Hindu social classes.
5) [noun] a man from this class.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Krishnavarnaka.
Ends with: Lohitakrishnavarna.
Search found 16 books and stories containing Krishnavarna, Krishna-varna, Kṛṣṇa-varṇa, Krsna-varna, Kṛṣṇa-varṇā, Kṛṣṇavarṇa, Krsnavarna, Kṛṣṇavarṇā; (plurals include: Krishnavarnas, varnas, varṇas, varṇās, Kṛṣṇavarṇas, Krsnavarnas, Kṛṣṇavarṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 3.5.5 < [Chapter 5 - The Dispute Among the Gopas]
Verse 2.18.23 < [Chapter 18 - The Sight of Śrī Kṛṣṇacandra]
Rudra-Shiva concept (Study) (by Maumita Bhattacharjee)
2.27. Rudra as Kṛṣṇa Asita < [Chapter 6a - The Epithets of Rudra-Śiva]
2.3. Rudra as Śarva < [Chapter 6a - The Epithets of Rudra-Śiva]
40. Pañcabrahma incarnation < [Chapter 5 - Rudra-Śiva in the Purāṇic Literature]
The Linga Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 52 - Geography of the World (bhuvanakośa) < [Section 1 - Uttarabhāga]
Chapter 48 - The Mountain Meru < [Section 1 - Uttarabhāga]
Chapter 65 - Thousand names of Śiva (Rudra-sahasranāma) < [Section 1 - Uttarabhāga]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)
Verse 2.1.375-376 < [Chapter 1 - The Beginning of the Lord’s Manifestation and His Instructions on Kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana]
Verse 1.2.25 < [Chapter 2 - The Lord’s Appearance]
Apastamba Dharma-sutra (by Āpastamba)