Kedara, Kedāra: 23 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kedara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Kedāra (केदार) is the name of a meritious city in Gaṅgādvāra on the Himālaya mountain, according to the Skandapurāṇa 6.122. The story of its creation is givin in the chapter entitled “creation of Kedāra”. Accordingly, in the beginnning of the Manvantara of the first Manu (Svāyambhuva), there was Hiraṇyākṣa, a daitya of inordinate strength. Śakra (Indra) took refuge in Gaṅgādvāra along with the suras. He appealed to Mahādeva (Śiva) in his buffalo-form to destroy the five dānavas (Hiraṇyākṣa, Subāhu, Vakrakandhara, Triśṛṅga and Lohitākṣa). After slaying the five dānavas, Indra said: “Since you said when you were in the form of a buffalo, ‘ke dārayāmī’, you shall become well-known by the name Kedāra”.

Regarding Kedāra, there is the following śloka sung by Nārada: “by drinking the holy water in Kedāra, by offering balls of rice in Gayā and by gaining the knowledge of Brahman, there cannot be rebirth”

The Skandapurāṇa is the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas and narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kedāra (केदार).—A holy place in the interior of Kurukṣetra. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, that those who bathe in this holy Bath would obtain the fruits of good actions. One of the twelve Liṅgas consecrated in important places, is in Kedāra.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kedāra (केदार) is the name of a sacred river as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.12, “somehow men must strive to find a residence in a holy centre. On the shores of the ocean in the confluence of hundreds of rivers there are many such holy centres (puṇyakṣetra or tīrtha) and temples. [...] The devotees of Śiva are the bestowers of Śivaloka and accord cherished desires. [...] When the sun is in Karkaṭaka or Siṃha one shall take bath in the Sindhu (Indus). On that occasion the drinking of the sacred water of Kedāra and ablution therein accords perfect knowledge”.

Note: Kedāra refers to Kedāra Gaṅgā or Mandākinī in Garhwal.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kedāra (केदार).—A kṣetra in which Vṛka performed tapas to Śiva; a tīrtha sacred to Pitṛs and the goddess Mārgadāyīnī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 88. 17; Matsya-purāṇa 13. 30; 22. 11; 181. 29.

1b) One of the forms of Brahmā in the Gayā stone.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 56; 111. 72.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kedāra (केदार) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.81.59, III.83.15) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kedāra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Kedara (केदर) is the name of a Tīrtha (holy places) mentioned in the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The Saurapurāṇa also declares Kedara as the tīrtha par-excellence which is very dear to Śaṃbhu. Bathing in the water of that tīrtha, by drinking its water and worshipping Śiva a person attains the status of Gaṇapati. the leader of a Gaṇa.

According to the Vāmanapurāṇa (34.8-10) the place Kedara got this name due to the following incident:—

“Śiva was observing penance called Mahāvrata. In this vow, he had placed a vita (a short wooden rod thick in the middle and tappering at both ends) in his mouth. Gradually the Vītā went in breaking the palate of Śiva, came through his matted locks. It fell on the Himālayan rocks, where he was performing the vow. As it fell down the vita tore the rock and the place became plain. As the place became plain due to getting tom (dārita), it came to be called Kedara”.

Note: the Skandapurāṇa (VI. 122.28-30) states that Śiva created a kuṇḍa at this region near the entrance of the Gaṅgā. It is one of the eight śivatīrthas in Vārāṇasī according to the Matsyapurāṇa 180.29 and Agnipurāṇa 112.5. It is referred in various texts. Kurmapurāṇa (11.36.5) takes [Kedara] to be the abode of high-souled Śaṃbhu.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kedāra (केदार) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Kedāra) is named Īśāna. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Kedāra (केदार) or Kedārādri is the name of a mountain (adri), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 72. Accordingly, as king Vinītamati said to Somaśūra: “... there lived on the Kedāra mountain a great hermit, named Śubhanaya, who was for ever bathing in the waters of the Mandākinī, and was gentle and emaciated with penance”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kedāra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Kedāra (केदार) refers to (1) a “field”, (2) the deity known as Kedāra, a form of Śiva (also the famous site of pilgrimage known as Kedāratīrtha), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 7.35. Occasional references to the Kedāra deity are found in the later Kāvya literature. In Hemacandra’s Dvyāśraya Kāvya we find Kumārapāla, king of Guzarat, repairing the temples of Kedāra Śiva and Somanātha. The temple of the former is referred to as Kedāraharmya [in verse 20.91]. [...] The idol is referred to in [verse] 20.91.

Vastupāla, also of Guzarat, makes a curious reference to Kedāra in that he compares the buffaloes lying in the sun to an idol of the deity. Cf. also Nāgarāja’s Bhāvaśatak verse 98. (Kāvyamālā, part IV)

More famous is the Śiva-liṅga known as Kedāreśvara located in the snowy region of Kedāra, and it is probable that Śrīharṣa has either the deity or the sacred site in his mind, to judge from his reference to “snow” in the verse in which he speaks of Kedāra. In this connection we may refer to Śivapurāṇa (Jñānasaṃhitā chapter 47), which described the origin of Kedāreśvara on the snowy peak of Kedāra. This is the famous peak belonging to the Kedarnath-Badrinath group which feeds the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda headwaters of the Ganges in Kumaon.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kedāra (केदार) or Kedārajāta refers to “rice grown in wet land” and is classified as a type of grain (dhānya) in the section on śūkadhānya (awned grains) in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The author explains the characteristics and the properties of various food grains (dhānyas). [...] General properties of rice which are [viz., grown in wet land (kedāra-jāta-śāli)] are discussed here. The properties of different grains based on their habitat, variety of water for irrigating them are also explained.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kedāra.—(EI 28), a corn-field. (EI 32), low land. Cf. bhū-kedāra (EI 19); a land measure; cf. the land measure called keyār in the Sylhet region of East Pakistan. Note: kedāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kedāra : (m.; nt.) arable land; a field.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kedāra, (m. nt.) an irrigated field, prepared for ploughing, arable land in its first stage of cultivation: kedāre pāyetvā karissāma “we shall till the fields after watering them” J. I, 215; as square-shaped (i.e. marked out as an allotment) Vin. I, 391 (caturassa°; Bdhgh on MV VIII, 12, 1); J. III, 255 (catukkaṇṇa°); surrounded by a trench, denoting the boundary (-mariyādā) DhA III, 6.—J. IV, 167; V, 35; PvA. 7 (=khetta). The spelling is sometimes ketāra (J. III, 255 v. l.) see Trenckner, J. P. T. S. 1908, 112. Note. The prefix ke- suggests an obsolete noun of the meaning “water, ” as also in kebuka, ke-vaṭṭa; perhaps Sk. kṣvid, kṣvedate, to be wet, ooze? ke would then be k(h)ed, and kedara= ked+dṛ, bursting forth of water=inundation; kebuka =kedvu(d)ka (udaka); kevaṭṭa=ked+vṛ, moving on the water, fisherman; (cp. AvŚ Index Kaivarta: name of an officer on board a trading vessel).

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kēdārā (केदारा).—m A rāga or musical mode. See rāga.

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kēdāra (केदार).—m The name of one of the lingams of Shiva. See bārā jyōtiliṅga.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kedara (केदर).—a. Squint-eyed; cf. केकर (kekara).

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Kedāra (केदार).—

1) A field under water; meadow; केदारेभ्यस्त्वपोऽगृह्णन्कर्षका दृढसेतुभिः (kedārebhyastvapo'gṛhṇaṅkarṣakā dṛḍhasetubhiḥ) Bhāg.1.2.41; Ms.9.38,44; cf. the play on words in the Subhās. के दारपोषणरताः (ke dārapoṣaṇaratāḥ) ? and the reply is केदारपोषणरताः (kedārapoṣaṇaratāḥ).

2) A basin for water round the root of a tree.

3) A mountain.

4) A particular mountain forming part of the Himālayas (modern Kedār).

5) A form of Śiva.

6) Name of a Rāga (in music).

Derivable forms: kedāraḥ (केदारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kedara (केदर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Squint-eyed. m.

(-raḥ) The name of a plant. E. ka the earth or the head, dṛ to divide, affix ac.

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Kedāra (केदार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A field, a meadow, a plain. 2. A mountain. 3. A name of Siva. 4. A particular place, the modern Kedar, part of the Himalaya mountains. 5. A basin for water round the root of a tree. 6. A bed in a garden or field. E. ka water, earth, &c. dṛ to tear or rend, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kedāra (केदार).—m. A cultivated field, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 44; pariticularly a watered one, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 22, 18; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 112.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kedāra (केदार).—[masculine] an irrigated field; khaṇḍa [neuter] a hole in such a field.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Kedāra (केदार) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Abdhi [dharma] Quoted by Śrīdharasvāmin Oxf. 256^a.

2) Kedāra (केदार):—Abdhi. read Oxf. 286^a.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kedara (केदर):—mfn. = kekara, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) m. Name of a plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Kedāra (केदार):—m. (n., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) a field or meadow, especially one under water, [Manu-smṛti ix, 38 & 44; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) kapilasya k, ‘Kapila’s field’, Name of a Tīrtha, [Mahābhārata iii, 6042 ff.]

5) mataṅgasya k, ‘Mataṅga’s field’, another Tīrtha, [8159]

6) a basin for water round the root of a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) a bed in a garden or field, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) plain, area, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xviii, 5, 4 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

9) Name of a particular constellation, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka]

10) of a Rāga (in music)

11) of a mountain country (the modern Kedār, part of the Himālaya mountains, [Horace H. Wilson]), [Mahābhārata vi, 427; Nandi-purāṇa]

12) Name of Śiva as worshipped in the Himālaya

13) of the author of a work entitled Abdhi

14) n. Name of a Tīrtha, [Matsya-purāṇa]

15) of a Liṅga, [ib.]

16) (in the Himālaya), [Śiva-purāṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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