Katham, Kathaṃ: 6 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Katham means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kathaṃ : (adv.) how?

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of katham in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Katham (कथम्).—ind. [kim-prakārārthe thamu kādeśaśca]

1) How, in what way, in what manner, whence; कथं मारात्मके त्वयि विश्वासः (kathaṃ mārātmake tvayi viśvāsaḥ) H.1; अथ स वैद्यः कथम् (atha sa vaidyaḥ katham) Mu.2 'well, how did the physician fare'; सानुबन्धाः कथं न स्युः संपदो मे निरापदः (sānubandhāḥ kathaṃ na syuḥ saṃpado me nirāpadaḥ) R.1.64,3.44; कथमात्मानं निवेदयामि कथं वाऽऽत्मापहारं करोमि (kathamātmānaṃ nivedayāmi kathaṃ vā''tmāpahāraṃ karomi) Ś.1 (where the speaker is doubtful as to the propriety of what he says).

2) Oh what indeed ! (expressing surprise); कथं मामेवोद्दिशति (kathaṃ māmevoddiśati) Ś.6.

3) It is often connected with the particles इव, नाम, नु, वा (iva, nāma, nu, vā), or स्वित् (svit) in the sense of, 'how indeed', 'how possibly', 'I should like to know', (where the question is generalized); कथं वा गम्यते (kathaṃ vā gamyate) U.3; कथं नामैतत् (kathaṃ nāmaitat) U.6.

4) When connected with the particles चित्, चन (cit, cana) or अपि (api) it means 'in every way', 'on any account', 'somehow', 'with great difficulty', 'with great efforts'; तस्य स्थित्वा कथमपि पुरः (tasya sthitvā kathamapi puraḥ) Me.3; कथमप्युन्नमितं न चुम्बितं तु (kathamapyunnamitaṃ na cumbitaṃ tu) Ś.3.24; न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथंचन (na lokavṛttaṃ varteta vṛttihetoḥ kathaṃcana) Ms. 4.11,5.143; कथंचिदीशा मनसां बभूवुः (kathaṃcidīśā manasāṃ babhūvuḥ) Ku.3.34; कथं कथमपि उत्थितः (kathaṃ kathamapi utthitaḥ) Pt.1; विसृज्य कथमप्युमाम् (visṛjya kathamapyumām) Ku.6.3; Me.22; Amaru.12,39,5,73; Pt.1.

5) Scarcely, hardly; कथमपि भुवनेऽस्मिंस्तादृशाः संभवन्ति (kathamapi bhuvane'smiṃstādṛśāḥ saṃbhavanti) Māl.2.9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Katham (कथम्).—ind. 1. A particle of interrogation, (how, what.) 2. Also implying mode, (how, in what manner.) 3. A particle of amazement or surprise. 4. Of pleasure. 5. Of abuse. 6. Of interrogation, implying doubt. E. kim what, and thamu aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Katham (कथम्).—[ka + tha + m] (cf. kim), adv. 1. In what manner, [Nala] 3, 10. 2. How, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 14, 13; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 2. 3. What, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 94, 1 (kathaṃ mām evoddiśati, What! dares he defy me?). 4. Whence, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 98, 23.

— With following api, 1. By some means, by accident, [Pañcatantra] 127, 25; 261, 13. 2. A little, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 73. 3. Slowly, with difficulty, [Pañcatantra] 236, 7. 4. kathaṃkatham api, Not without great pain, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 187, 11.

— With following nu, 1. How now? [Nala] 17, 20 (19). 2. How much more? [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 81; with na, How much less? [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 33, 9.

— With following cana, 1. In any manner, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 143; with na, In no manner, never, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 11. 2. Not without difficulty, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 67, 4. 3. kathaṃkatham cana, A little, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 29, 15.

— With following cid, 1. A little, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 65, 1. 2. Scarcely, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 24, 20. 3. With difficulty, [Pañcatantra] 9, 5; Mahābhārata 13, 2797. kathaṃ cid api, Even a little, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 190; Scarcely, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 99, 50. kathaṃ cid

— na, In no way, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 75, 7. na kathaṃ cid api, Never, Chr. 19, 4. na kathaṃ cid

— na, By all means, [Arjunasamāgama] 10, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Katham (कथम्).—[adverb] how? in what way? whence? [interrogative] & [exclamation]; often followed by nu ( = katham alone or = how much more, [with] neg. how much less); also by iva, nāma, svid. With cana, cid, & (later) api indef. somehow, in any way, scarcely, hardly, a little (katham sometimes doubled); [with] a negation (kathaṃ cana also alone) in no way, by no means, not at all. yathā kathaṃ cid howsoever, anyhow.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Katham (कथम्):—ind. ([from] 2. ka), how? in what manner? whence? (e.g. katham etat, how is that? katham idānīm, how now? what is now to be done? katham mārātmake tvayi viśvāsaḥ, how can there be reliance on thee of murderous mind? katham utsṛjya tvāṃ gaccheyam, how can I go away deserting you? katham buddhvā bhaviṣyati sā, how will she be when she awakes? katham mṛtyuḥ, prabhavati vedavidām, whence is it that death has power over those that know the Veda? katham avagamyate, whence is it inferred?)

2) sometimes katham merely introduces an interrogation (e.g. katham ātmānaṃ nivedayāmi kathaṃ vātmāpahāraṃ karomi, shall I declare myself or shall I withdraw?) katham is often found in connection with the particles iva, nāma, nu, svid, which appear to generalize the interrogation (how possibly? how indeed? etc.)

3) with nu it is sometimes = kimu, or kutas (e.g. kathaṃ nu, how much more! na kathaṃ nu, how much less!) katham is often connected, like kim, with the particles cana, cid, and api, which give an indefinite sense to the interrogative (e.g. kathaṃ cana, in any way, some how; scarcely, with difficulty; na kathaṃ cana, in no way at all; kathaṃcit, some how or other, by some means or other, in any way, with some difficulty, scarcely, in a moderate degree, a little; na kathaṃcit, not at all, in no way whatever; na kathaṃcid na, in no way not id est. most decidedly; yathā kathaṃcit, in any way whatsoever; kathaṃcid yadi jīvati, it is with difficulty that he lives; katham api, some how or other, with some difficulty, scarcely a little; katham api na, by no means, not at all), [Ṛg-veda etc.]

4) according to lexicographers katham is a particle implying amazement

5) surprise

6) pleasure

7) abuse.

8) Kathaṃ (कथं):—[from katham] (in [compound] for katham; at the beginning of an adjective compound it may also have the sense of kim).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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