Karunya, Kāruṇya: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Karunya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य) refers to “compassion”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] This is the secret of alchemy. He should not reveal it to others. This secret of the Siddha tradition, which is difficult to obtain, has now been taught. It is to be revealed through the compassion of the Guru (guru-kāruṇya). What else do you wish to hear?”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Pauṣṭika (पौष्टिक) refers to “mercy”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Jupiter also presides over elephants, horses, priests, rulers, ministers, marriages and health; over mercy (kāruṇya), truthfulness, cleanliness, religious observances; over learning, gifts and charity; over citizens, richmen, grammarians, Vedic students, sorcerers, lawyers, the ensigns of royalty—the umbrella, the flag-staff, the Cāmara and the like; over Śaileyaka, Mānsī, Tagara, Kuṣṭha, quicksilver, salt, beans, sweet flavour, wax and Coraka”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य) refers to “compassion” (as opposed to Akāruṇya—‘those who do not have compassion’), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān said to Brahmā and others]: “[...] These dhāraṇī-mantrapadas are established in Jambudvīpa for the benefit, welfare and comfort of all beings. It is for the subduing and restraining of hostile and harmful Nāgas who do not have compassion (akāruṇya) and pity. It is for the giving of punishment to the enemy”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य, “compassion”) refers to “compassion for the suffering”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly:—“[...] after he had thus installed his son in the kingdom, Śatabala himself assumed the sovereignty of tranquillity at the feet of an Ācārya. [... ] With unbroken meditation augmented by the mental attitudes—friendliness, etc. [viz., kāruṇya], plunged in great joy, he remained always in emancipation, as it were”.

Note: Cf. Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 7.6. Yogaśāstra 4.117.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य, “afflicted”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.11.—What is meant by compassion and sympathy for the afflicted (kāruṇya)? The disposition to render assistance to the afflicted is compassion and sympathy for the afflicted. What is the subject of contemplation on compassion and sympathy for the afflicted? The subject of this contemplation is those who are afflicted with sufferings from anguish and distress. It develops feelings of sympathy in the practitioner.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kāruṇya (कारुण्य).—n S Compassion or tenderness.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kārūṇya (कारूण्य).—n Compassion, tenderness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य).—

1) Compassion, kindness, pity; कारुण्यमातन्वते (kāruṇyamātanvate) Gītagovinda 1; करिण्यः कारुण्यास्पदम् (kariṇyaḥ kāruṇyāspadam) Bv.1.2.

2) Sentiment of Pathos कारुण्यं भवभूतिरेव तनुते (kāruṇyaṃ bhavabhūtireva tanute) |

Derivable forms: kāruṇyam (कारुण्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य).—n.

(-ṇyaṃ) Compassion, tenderness. E. karuṇā compassion, &c. ṇyat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य).—i. e. karuṇa + ya, n. Compassion, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 25.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य).—[adjective] praiseworthy, excellent; [neuter] pity, compassion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kāruṇya (कारुण्य):—[from kāru] 1. kāruṇya mfn. praiseworthy [Comm.] [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa ii.]

2) [from kāruṇika] 2. kāruṇya n. compassion, kindness, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य):—(ṇyaṃ) 1. n. Compassion.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kāruṇya (कारुण्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kāruṇṇa, Kārunna, Kāluṇa, Koluṇṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karunya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kāruṇya (ಕಾರುಣ್ಯ):—[noun] kindness in excess of what may be expected or demanded by fairness; mercy; deep sympathy.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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