Karpura, Karpūra: 36 definitions


Karpura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Karpūra (कर्पूर) is a sanskrit technical term translating to “Camphor”, which is a white or transparant organic chemical. It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

Karpūra (कर्पूर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “Camphor tree”, a species of large tree from the Lauraceae (laurel) family of flowering plants.. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Cinnamomum camphora and is commonly referred to in English as the “camphorwood” or “camphor laurel” among others. It is an evergreen tree, growing up to 30m in height. It is native in India, China and Formosa. It has leathery aromatic simple leaves with yellowish white flowers in axillary panicles. It has ovoid or globose dark green fruits.

This plant (Karpūra) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the name Hima.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor” which is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., karpūra (camphor), etc.].

Karpūra or “camphor” is also mentioned as one of the fruits used in the treatment of aggravated phlegm.—Procedure to alleviate kapha (phlegm) after meals: The excess phlegm in the human body can lead to the weakening of digestive fire. Sleeping immediately after the meal will result in the aggravation of phlegm. The excess phlegm must be alleviated by employing fumes of the fragrant substances or consuming fruits [like karpūra (camphor), ...]. After a meal, one must walk a few steps. Practising this lightens the food mass and imparts comfort in the neck, knees and loins. [...]

Karpūra or “camphor” is also used in the process of chewing betel (tāmbūla).—Accordingly, betel leaves (tāmbūla) are generally chewed with areca-nut and limestone powder. One who holds the betel savored in combination with [viz., karpūra (camphor)], can stimulate his appetite and clear the bad smell of his mouth. Five niṣkas of areca-nut, two palas of betel leaf and two guñjas of limestone powder is the best proportion for betel chewing.

Karpūra (camphor) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., karpūra (camphor)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kāñjika gruel)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning karpūra] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Karpūra (कर्पूर).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—Karpūra (camphor) is also known as Śaśī or Candra (moon) because of its cold property. It is pungent, bitter, fragrant, and eliminates fould smell and burning sensation. Moreover, it is cardiac stimulant, bulk-reducing and beneficial for eyes.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

The Karpura fruit has a bitter pungent taste, subdues thirst and Kapha, is light in digestion, and removes bad odours from the mouth and cleanses it of all impurities. The Karpura has a slightly bitter taste, is aromatic, cooling in its potency, and light in digestion. It is possessed of liquefacient properties and is specially recommended in dryness of the mouth and fetid breath.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Karpūra (कर्पूर):—[karpūraḥ] Elbow. The joint between the arm and forearm.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Himalayan Academy: Dancing with Siva

Karpura (camphor). An aromatic white crystalline solid derived from the wood of camphor trees (or prepared synthetically from pinene), prized as fuel in temple āratī lamps. See: āratī, pūjā.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor” (perfume), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—[...] His heart is agitated with sexual desire. His lotus face displays a faint smile. This is how the Yogin should visualise his body for a long time, as transformed into Śiva. All his limbs are perfumed with sandal, aloe, camphor (karpūra), musk and saffron. He has a beautiful face. He is surrounded by millions of gem islands, in a chamber on a fine bed”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor” (used for scenting the earth), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 2.17-19]—“The pure-souled Ācārya should draw an eight petaled lotus, in smooth, pure earth [that is] smeared with sandal and aloe wood [and] scented [with] fragrant camphor (karpūra-āmoda-gandhāḍhya) and strong saffron. After he has drawn [the lotus] with a great undertaking, [the Ācarya,] decorated and adorned with a crown, smeared with sandalwood, [writes] the mātṛkā. Having placed oṃ in the middle [on the pericarp of the lotus], he should draw [the phonemes of the mātṛkā on the petals] starting in the East”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Karpura in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Karpūra (कर्पूर) or Karpūradvīpa is the name of an island (dvīpa) according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, “... when the Brāhman [Candrasvāmin] heard that, he went in a ship with the merchant Dānavarman to this island of Kaṭāha. There he heard that the merchant Kanakavarman had gone from that island to an island named Karpūra”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Karpūra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: archive.org: The ocean of story. vol. 4

Karpūra (कर्पूर):—The name of an island mentioned in Book IX of the Kathāsaritsāgara. The story relates the island being visited by a Brāhman named Chandrasvāmin, who followed the footsteps of the merchant named Kanakavarman.

Source: archive.org: The ocean of story. vol. 8

Karpūra is, of course, camphor, and is mentioned in our text quite distinct from the “five fruits.” An alternative Sanskrit name is chandra-bhasma, a term which refers to its moonlike coolness. The form karpūra, and the vernacular kāpūr, kappīn, etc., in all probability have their origin in the name of the Sumatran camphor-tree, gābū or gāmbū, whence the Indian supplies were derived.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Karpūra (कर्पूर) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Karpūra) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I venerate all [ten] Kuleśvarīs, starting with Sarvasampatpradā, the goddesses of the external ring of ten. They are auspicious and display the gestures of boon-giving and safety. I resort to Sarvajñā and other goddesses situated in the internal ring of ten. They carry a rosary and a book [in their hands], and their appearance is charming like camphor (karpūra-rucira-ākṛti). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor”, the powder thereof forms a preferable constituent for a great offering, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.16. Accordingly, “[...] the great offering of eatables shall be made to Śiva especially in the month of Dhanus. The constituent parts of the great offering are as follows:—[...] camphor (karpūra) powder (cūrṇa) [...] This great offering of eatables made to the deities shall be distributed among devotees m the order of their castes”.

Karpūra is used in ritualistic worship according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11, while explaining the mode of worshipping Śiva:—“[...] fragrant root of the plant Uśīra and sandal-paste shall be put in the water for washing feet. Fine powders of Jātī, Kaṃkola, Karpūra, root of Vaṭa and Tamālaka should be put in the water intended for sipping. Sandal powder shall be put in all these nine vessels. Nandīśa, the divine Bull of Śiva shall be worshipped beside the lord Śiva. The latter shall be worshipped with scents, incense and different. [...]”.

Also, “[...] offerings of flowers, especially white flowers and rare flowers, shall be made to Lord Śiva. Flowers of Apāmārga, Karpūra, Jātī, Campaka, Kuśa, Pāṭala, Karavīra, Mallikā, Kamala (lotus) and Utpalas (lilies) of various sorts shall be used. When water is poured it shall be poured in a continuous stream”.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Karpura (कर्पुर) represents the food taken in the month Caitra for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In Caitra, the tooth-brush is that of jambu-wood. The food taken is karpura. The deity to be worshipped is Surūpa. The flowers used in worship are arkapatra. The naivedya offerings is kaṃsara. The result  accrued equals naramedha.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Karpūra (कर्पूर) is the name of an Apabhraṃśa metre classified as Dvipadi (metres with two lines in a stanza) discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Karpūra has 28 mātrās in a line. Kuṃkuma and Karpūra together are known as the Ullālas and were held in great favour by the bards of Magadha.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Karpura in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor” (in the treatment of hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “[...] If the disease is caused by a general wasting of the system, [...] the proper thing to do is [...] to administer the fresh meat of a hen sparrow; or, the flesh of hogs may also be given in small quantities according to the strength of the bird; or, the flesh of birds mixed with cow-butter. Warm-water is to be given with discretion, and, after that, water mixed with camphor (karpūra-saṃyuta), from time to time”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Karpūra is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Veṣṭabhakṣa and with the direction-guardian (dikpāla) named Śītala.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Karpūra (कर्पूर) refers to “camphor”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Whatever difficulties arise from life, they are each endured here by the embodied soul, only having taken hold of the body powerfully. The body of men also defiles auspicious things [such as] camphor (karpūra), saffron, aloe wood, musk, sandalwood because of [its] contact [with them]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Karpūra (कर्पूर) pieces were dropped in madirā, as part of the tasks performed to beautify the Sleeping chamber (of young ladies) in Ancient India, as depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] Page 83.3-9: Here is the description of the house or the sleeping chambers of young ladies which were beautified for the reception of their husbands. The select items in this list are as follows: [e.g., dropping pieces of Karpūra in madirā;] [...]

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Karpura in India is the name of a plant defined with Cinnamomum camphora in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Persea camphora (L.) Spreng. (among others).

2) Karpura is also identified with Hedychium spicatum It has the synonym Gandasulium sieboldii (Wall.) Kuntze (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Nouvelles archives du muséum d’histoire naturelle (1913)
· Plantae Asiaticae Rariores (1831)
· Deutsche Flora. Pharmaceutisch-medicinische Botanik (1881)
· Journ. Hort. Soc. (1852)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Systema Vegetabilium (1825)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karpura, for example chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karpūra (कर्पूर).—m (S) Camphor.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

karpūra (कर्पूर).—m Camphor.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karpūra (कर्पूर).—[Un.4.9.] Camphor.

Derivable forms: karpūraḥ (कर्पूरः), karpūram (कर्पूरम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karpūra (कर्पूर).—mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) Camphor. E. kṛp to be able, ūra Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karpūra (कर्पूर).—m. and n. Camphor, [Pañcatantra] 47, 7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karpūra (कर्पूर).—[masculine] [neuter] camphor.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Karpūra (कर्पूर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Gajamalla, grandfather of Kalyāṇamalla (Meghadūtaṭīkā). Oxf. 125^b.

2) Karpūra (कर्पूर):—father of Gajamalla, grandfather of Kalyāṇamalla (Meghadūtaṭīkā). Oxf. 125^b.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karpūra (कर्पूर):—1. karpūra mn. (√kṛp [commentator or commentary] on [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 90]), camphor (either the plant or resinous exudation or fruit), [Suśruta; Pañcatantra] etc.

2) m. Name of several men

3) of a Dvīpa, [Kathāsaritsāgara lvi, 61 f.]

4) Karpūrā (कर्पूरा):—[from karpūra] f. a kind of yellowish pigment, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

5) Karpūra (कर्पूर):—mf(ā)n. made of camphor, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

6) 2. karpūra [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] karpūrati, to be like camphor, [Dhūrtasamāgama; Kuvalayānanda]

7) Kārpūra (कार्पूर):—mfn. ([from] karpūra), made of camphor, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karpūra (कर्पूर):—[(raḥ-raṃ)] 1. m. n. Camphor.

2) tilakā (kā) 1. f. One of Durgā’s female attendants.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karpūra (कर्पूर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kappūra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karpura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karpura (ಕರ್ಪುರ):—[noun] = ಕರ್ಪೂರ [karpura].

--- OR ---

Karpūra (ಕರ್ಪೂರ):—

1) [noun] a volatile, crystalline ketone, C10H16O, with a strong characteristic odor, derived from the wood of the camphor tree or synthetically from pinene, used to protect fabrics from moths, in manufacturing cellulose plastics, in medicine as an irritant and stimulant and for lights to be waved before a deity; camphor.

2) [noun] the tree Cinnamomum camphora of Lauraceae family; camphor tree.

3) [noun] the plant Anisochilus carnosus of Lamiaceae family.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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