Kapittha, Kapiṭṭha: 22 definitions

Introduction

Kapittha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kapittha (कपित्थ, “elephant-apple”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Kapittha (elephant-apple): the forefinger of the Śikhara hand is bent over the top of the thumb. Usage: Lakṣmī, Sarasvatī,winding, holding cjonbals, milking cows, collyrium, holding flowers at the time of dalliance, grasping the end of the robe (celāñcala), veiling the head with the añcala, offering incenseor lights, etc.

According to another book: same definition. Long ago when the Churning of the Ocean was done, Viṣṇu used this hand to pull upon Mt. Mandara. Its sage is Nārada, its race Ṛṣi, itscolour white, its patron deity Padmagarbha (Viṣṇu). Usage: churning, Lakṣmī, offering incense or lights, etc., spreading cowries, holding elephant goad or vajra, or a sling, or cymbals, showinga dance (nāṭya), holding a lotus of dalliance (lilābja-dhāraṇa), counting Sarasvatī’s rosary, pounding barley etc., seizing theend of the robe (celāñcala), Ṛṣi caste, white colour.

2) One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Kapittha (elephant-apple), Alapadma hands are crossed.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Kapittha (कपित्थ, “elephant-apple”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand (asaṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): The forefinger of the Śikhara hand to be bent and pressed by the thumb.

(Uses): It is to represent weapons such as sword, bow, discus, javelin (tomara), spear (kunta), mace, spike (śakti), thunderbolt and arrows, true and wholesome deeds.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kapittha (कपित्थ) is a Sanskrit word referring to “Wood apple”, a species of plant from the Rutaceae (rue/citrus) family of flowering plants, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is also known as Kavittha in the Prakrit language, and as Kavitā in Hindi. The official botanical name is Feronia elephantum (or, Feronia limonia, Limonia acidissima) and is commonly known in English as “Elephant apple”, “Curd fruit” or “Monkey fruit” among others.

This plant (Kapittha) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the name Dadhithya.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to “wood apple” which is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., kapittha (wood apple), etc.].

Kapittha or “wood apple” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., kapittha (wood apple)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., picumandabīja (nimb tree)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kapittha (कपित्थ) is another name for Elavālu, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Prunus cerasus Linn. (sour cherry) from the Rosaceae or “rose” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.124-126 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kapittha and Elavālu, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to the medicinal plant Feronia limonica [limonia] (L.) Swingle, Syn. Feronia elephantum Correa., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kapittha] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kapittha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to the a type of fruit, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The dictionaries give the name Kapittha to Feronia elephantum Correa and its fruit, the Elephant apple, but as this fruit does not grow in Kaśmīra and as Kalhaṇa refers to Kapittha fruit as obtainable in Kaśmīra only for a short period at the commencement of summer, it is reasonable to accept Stein’s suggestion that the term was used in Kaśmīra for cherry which ripens in June. The Nīlamata regards this fruit as the abode of poverty (verse 754).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—Illustrative of the world which is compared to the shape of an egg.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 7. 22.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A village near Cittalapabbata vihara, the residence of Phussadeva (v.l. Gavita). Mhv.xxiii.82.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to a type of fruit, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “the fruit of the kapittha is for using with the Goddess Śrī. [...] There are many more kinds of fruit such as the above varieties, but with different names: examine their taste and use them accordingly to make offerings”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., kapittha], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., kapittha]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Kapittha tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Kapittha is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Kapittha refers to the “Wood-apple tree”.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Kapittha), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kapittha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kapittha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kapittha : (m.) wood-apple. || kapiṭṭha (m.),elephant-apple tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kapiṭṭha, and Kapittha — 1. the tree Feronia elephantum, the wood-apple tree J. VI, 534; Vism. 183 (°ka); Mhvs 29, 11;— 2. °ṃ (nt.) the wood apple Miln. 189;— 3. the position of the hand when the fingers are slightly and loosely bent in J. I, 237; kapitthaka S. V, 96. (Page 187)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kapittha (कपित्थ).—m (S) Elephant or wood-apple, Feronia elephantum or Cratœva valanga. 2 n The fruit of it.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—The wood apple tree; Bhāg.8.2.14.

-ttham 1 The fruit of the above tree.

2) A particular position of hands and fingers.

3) Butter-milk (taka) यौवनस्थस्य गौरस्य कपित्थस्य सुगन्धिनः (yauvanasthasya gaurasya kapitthasya sugandhinaḥ) Rām.2.91.72.

Derivable forms: kapitthaḥ (कपित्थः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—m. (Sanskrit id., the wood-apple tree, and nt. its fruit), in Mahāvyutpatti 5941 in a list of (colors and) articles used in painting, dyeing, etc.; perhaps the fruit, or some other product of the tree, used in some such way. Tibetan trans- literates.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—m.

(-tthaḥ) The elephant or wood apple, (Feronia elephantum.) E. kapi, and ttha from sthā to stay or abide; the residence of apes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).— (probably kapi-stha, vb. sthā), I. m. A tree, Feronia elephantum, Corr., Mahābhārata 1, 2830. Ii. n. Its fruit, [Suśruta] 1, 148, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree; [neuter] its fruit.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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