Kapittha, Kapiṭṭha: 35 definitions


Kapittha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kapittha (कपित्थ, “elephant-apple”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Kapittha (elephant-apple): the forefinger of the Śikhara hand is bent over the top of the thumb. Usage: Lakṣmī, Sarasvatī,winding, holding cjonbals, milking cows, collyrium, holding flowers at the time of dalliance, grasping the end of the robe (celāñcala), veiling the head with the añcala, offering incenseor lights, etc.

According to another book: same definition. Long ago when the Churning of the Ocean was done, Viṣṇu used this hand to pull upon Mt. Mandara. Its sage is Nārada, its race Ṛṣi, itscolour white, its patron deity Padmagarbha (Viṣṇu). Usage: churning, Lakṣmī, offering incense or lights, etc., spreading cowries, holding elephant goad or vajra, or a sling, or cymbals, showinga dance (nāṭya), holding a lotus of dalliance (lilābja-dhāraṇa), counting Sarasvatī’s rosary, pounding barley etc., seizing theend of the robe (celāñcala), Ṛṣi caste, white colour.

2) One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Kapittha (elephant-apple), Alapadma hands are crossed.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Kapittha (कपित्थ, “elephant-apple”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand (asaṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): The forefinger of the Śikhara hand to be bent and pressed by the thumb.

(Uses): It is to represent weapons such as sword, bow, discus, javelin (tomara), spear (kunta), mace, spike (śakti), thunderbolt and arrows, true and wholesome deeds.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to one of the twenty-two Asaṃyuktahastas or “single hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—In the Śabdakalpadruma, the word kapittha is explained as a kind of tree where kapi i.e., monkey comes due to the greed of fruit. The word kapittha again denotes the fruit called wood apple. Abhinavagupta states that due to the shape of a wood apple, this posture is named as kapittha. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, in kapittha-hasta, the thumb is inside the fist.

In the Abhinayadarpaṇa, it is said that, when the forefinger is bent over the top of the thumb in the śīkhara-hasta, this posture is called kapittha-hasta. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, this posture is used to hold a disc or an arrow.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

Kapittha (कपित्थ) is a Sanskrit word referring to “Wood apple”, a species of plant from the Rutaceae (rue/citrus) family of flowering plants, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is also known as Kavittha in the Prakrit language, and as Kavitā in Hindi. The official botanical name is Feronia elephantum (or, Feronia limonia, Limonia acidissima) and is commonly known in English as “Elephant apple”, “Curd fruit” or “Monkey fruit” among others.

This plant (Kapittha) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the name Dadhithya.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to the medicinal plant Feronia limonica [limonia] (L.) Swingle, Syn. Feronia elephantum Correa., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kapittha] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to “wood apple” which is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., kapittha (wood apple), etc.].

Kapittha or “wood apple” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., kapittha (wood apple)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., picumandabīja (nimb tree)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kapittha (कपित्थ) is another name for Elavālu, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Prunus cerasus Linn. (sour cherry) from the Rosaceae or “rose” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.124-126 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kapittha and Elavālu, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Kapittha (कपित्थ) is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment of snake-bites such as those caused by the Kṛṣṇamaṇḍalī-snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, one of the treatments is mentioned as follows: “For the fire-like burning of the wound caused by the bite, a paste or bolus made out of the excreta of pigeon, sap of Kapittha, Viśvābhū and Girikarṇikā must be applied on it with the dry leaves of Aśvamāra. Ash (bhasma) gotten from burnt rice must be applied on the body. It can be used for fumigation too”.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to “Limonia acidissima” [wrongly kapitha?], which can be manipulated into growing as a creeper using in various bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “A seed of the Limonia acidissima [e.g., Kapittha-ja] should be cultured hundred times with milk boiled along with the roots of Emblica officinalis, Acorus calamus, Terminalia chebula, Aspota (?), Aśmapānā (?), Calamus rotang, Dalbergia sissoo, Leptadenia reticulata, Hiptage benghalensis and Butea superba for over a month and then should be sown in a pit keeping in water mixed with clarified butter, and flesh of the boar. Thereafter, the pit should be filled with good quality soil measuring four fingers in thickness and then it should be watered with the decoction of Hordeum vulgare, Vigna mungo, Sesamum indicum, honey, fish and flesh. The seed then grows into a creeper without fail”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Kapittha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to the a type of fruit, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The dictionaries give the name Kapittha to Feronia elephantum Correa and its fruit, the Elephant apple, but as this fruit does not grow in Kaśmīra and as Kalhaṇa refers to Kapittha fruit as obtainable in Kaśmīra only for a short period at the commencement of summer, it is reasonable to accept Stein’s suggestion that the term was used in Kaśmīra for cherry which ripens in June. The Nīlamata regards this fruit as the abode of poverty (verse 754).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—Illustrative of the world which is compared to the shape of an egg.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 7. 22.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

1) Kapittha (कपित्थ) is classified as a “usable tree” which should be saved from being cut (for the purpose of gathering wood materials for Temple construction), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the architect is suggested to go to the forest to collect appropriate wood for temples in an auspicious day after taking advice from an astrologer. [...] Here, the eco-friendly suggestions of Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa are seen to protect the greenery and to balance a pollution free environment. [...] The text gives importance in saving the usable trees and that is why the trees [viz., Kapittha, etc.] are advised not to be cut as these trees and their fruits are very essential for livelihood.

2) Kapittha (कपित्थ) is also used as an ingredient of various mixtures of Vajralepa (“a special kind of hard cement”) which was used in the construction of a Temple and as a binding agent for joining bricks.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Kapittha (कपित्थ) or “wood apple” refers to a particular shade of the green color, created through the principles of the ancient Indian tradition of Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, five colours are regarded as the primary ones. A painter can create hundreds or thousands of colours by amalgamating the primary ones. Many shades of a particular colour also can be created by increasing or decreasing the quantity of the white part in the mixture. Thus, different shades of green could be made. For example—dūrvā i.e., panic grass, kapittha i.e., wood apple and mudga i.e a kind of kidney bean—all of which are basically green in colour but shows their colour in light and dark shades of green.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A village near Cittalapabbata vihara, the residence of Phussadeva (v.l. Gavita). Mhv.xxiii.82.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to a type of fruit, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “the fruit of the kapittha is for using with the Goddess Śrī. [...] There are many more kinds of fruit such as the above varieties, but with different names: examine their taste and use them accordingly to make offerings”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., kapittha], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., kapittha]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (e.g., the Kapittha tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I

Kapittha (कपित्थ) refers to a type of fruit, the juice of which represents one of 21 kinds of liquids (which the Jain mendicant should consider before rejecting or accepting them), according to the “Sajjhāya ekavīsa pāṇī nī” (dealing with the Monastic Discipline section of Jain Canonical literature) included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—This topic is explained with reference to the first aṅga (i.e. Ācārāṅgasūtra). This matter is distributed over the end of section 7 and the beginning of section 8 of the Piṇḍesaṇā chapter. [...] The technical terms [e.g., kapittha] used here are either borrowed from the Prakrit or rendered into the vernacular equivalents.—Note: Kūṭha is known in Prakrit as Kaviṭṭha.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Kapittha is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Kapittha refers to the “Wood-apple tree”.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Kapittha), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kapittha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kapittha [कपित्थः] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima L. from the Rutaceae (citrus) family having the following synonyms: Feronia elephantum, Feronia limonia, Schinus limonia. For the possible medicinal usage of kapittha, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kapittha in India is the name of a plant defined with Limonia acidissima in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Feronia elephantum Corr. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journ. Arn. Arb. (1938)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. (1846)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Lingnaam Agricultural Review (1924)
· Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences (1914)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kapittha, for example chemical composition, side effects, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kapittha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kapittha : (m.) wood-apple. || kapiṭṭha (m.),elephant-apple tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kapiṭṭha, and Kapittha — 1. the tree Feronia elephantum, the wood-apple tree J. VI, 534; Vism. 183 (°ka); Mhvs 29, 11;— 2. °ṃ (nt.) the wood apple Miln. 189;— 3. the position of the hand when the fingers are slightly and loosely bent in J. I, 237; kapitthaka S. V, 96. (Page 187)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kapittha (कपित्थ).—m (S) Elephant or wood-apple, Feronia elephantum or Cratœva valanga. 2 n The fruit of it.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—The wood apple tree; Bhāgavata 8.2.14.

-ttham 1 The fruit of the above tree.

2) A particular position of hands and fingers.

3) Butter-milk (taka) यौवनस्थस्य गौरस्य कपित्थस्य सुगन्धिनः (yauvanasthasya gaurasya kapitthasya sugandhinaḥ) Rām.2.91.72.

Derivable forms: kapitthaḥ (कपित्थः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—m. (Sanskrit id., the wood-apple tree, and nt. its fruit), in Mahāvyutpatti 5941 in a list of (colors and) articles used in painting, dyeing, etc.; perhaps the fruit, or some other product of the tree, used in some such way. Tibetan trans- literates.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—m.

(-tthaḥ) The elephant or wood apple, (Feronia elephantum.) E. kapi, and ttha from sthā to stay or abide; the residence of apes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).— (probably kapi-stha, vb. sthā), I. m. A tree, Feronia elephantum, Corr., Mahābhārata 1, 2830. Ii. n. Its fruit, [Suśruta] 1, 148, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree; [neuter] its fruit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kapittha (कपित्थ):—[from kapi] m. (ttha = stha) ‘on which monkeys dwell’, Feronia Elephantum, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a particular position of the hands and fingers

3) [v.s. ...] n. the fruit of Feronia Elephantum, [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā etc.]

4) Kāpittha (कापित्थ):—mfn. ([from] kapittha), belonging to the tree Feronia elephantum, [Pāṇini 4-3, 140.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapittha (कपित्थ):—(tthaḥ) 1. m. The wood-apple.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kapittha (कपित्थ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kaittha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kapittha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kapittha (ಕಪಿತ್ಥ):—

1) [noun] the tree Feronia elephantum.

2) [noun] its fruit; wood-apple.

3) [noun] the plant Girardinia leschenaultiana of Urticaceae family.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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