Jihva, Jihvā: 26 definitions


Jihva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Jihvā (जिह्वा) is a Sanskrit technical term, referring to the “tongue”. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Jihvā (जिह्वा):—Tongue. A freely movable muscular organ lying partly in the floor of the mouth and partly in the pharynx

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Jihvā (जिह्वा) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “tongue”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called rasayitavya (the tastable) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is varuṇa. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the tongue (jihvā), in the tastable (rasayitavya), in varuṇa, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Jihvā (जिह्वा) refers to “one’s tongue”, according to the Mataṅgapārameśvaratantra (Mataṅgapārameśvara’s Yogapāda) verse 2.23-27.—Accordingly, while discussing ancillary and seated poses in Yoga: “[...] His head should always be upright. His gaze is towards heaven and earth, and its support is the tip of the nose. His eyes are slightly closed and he does not touch the teeth [of the upper jaw] with those [of the lower, nor] with the tip of his tongue (jihvā-agra) which is located on the middle of the palate. O great sage, [this] Karaṇa has been explained fully and at length in regard to the path of Yoga”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Jihvā (जिह्वा) refers to “tongues (of flame)”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(Pūrṇagiri) is on the northern peak of Kailāśa and is full of countless flames. [...] That divine city of the supreme Lord is made of pillars of adamantine. It is surrounded by temple arches and palaces of the Fire of Time. It is filled with many forms and adorned with knowledge and (divine) qualities. Possessing many wonders, it is life itself in the triple universe. (All) this is filled by it and so it is called ‘Full’ (pūrṇa i.e. Pūrṇagiri). (The Fire of Time) has seven tongues (of flame) [i.e., sapta-jihvā-samopeta]; (his) form is Time and has six faces. Possessing the Full Moon, (he) is beautiful. (He is) the Great Vitality, holds a spear and brings about creation and destruction”.

Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta

Jihvā (जिह्वा) refers to the “various tongues of fire” which form part of preliminary rites before Dīkṣā: an important ritual of Śāktism described in the Śāradātilaka-tantra, chapters III-V.—“... The fire is placed in the yoni of the kuṇḍa and is consecrated. The various tongues (jihvās) of fire are assigned to the various limbs of the body of the worshipper.”

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Jihvā (जिह्वा).—Used in the sense of जिह्वाग्र (jihvāgra), the tip of the tongue.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Jihvā (जिह्वा).—A servant woman who stole ornaments from the palace. For the detailed story of how she was caught with stolen goods see under Hariśarman.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Jihvā (जिह्वा) is the name of a maid in the palace of a king, as mentioned in the “story of Tejasvatī ” according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 30. Accordingly, “in that palace there was a maid named Jihvā, who, with the assistance of her brother, had carried off that wealth from the interior of the palace; she, being alarmed at Hariśarman’s knowledge, went at night and applied her ear to the door of that chamber in order to find out what he was about”.

The story of Jihvā was narrated by Somaprabhā to Kaliṅgasenā in order to demonstrate that “fate watches to ensure the objects of auspicious persons, as good servants of their masters, when the latter are not on the look-out”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Jihvā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Jihvā (जिह्वा, “tongue”) refers to one of the twelve “subsidiary limbs” (upāṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Upāṅgas or the subsidiary limbs consist of the eyes, the eye-brows, pupils, cheeks, nose, jaws, lips, teeth, tongue [viz., Jihvā], chin, face, and the head.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Jihva (जिह्व) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Jihva).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Jihvā (जिह्वा, “taste”) refers to the one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., jihvā] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Jihvā (जिह्वा) refers to the “tongue”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Since reflecting on the thought is not distracted by sounds, knowing ear, sound, and [ear]-consciousness he practices meditation purified in respect of its proper essential character. Since reflecting on the thought is not distracted by scents, knowing nose, scents, and [nose]-consciousness he practices meditation purified in respect of its proper essential character. Since reflecting on the thought is not distracted by tastes, knowing tongue (jihvā), tastes, and [tongue]-consciousness he practices meditation purified in respect of its proper essential character. [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Jihvā (जिह्वा) refers to the “tongue (of a Nāga)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “[...] Then it should be threatened with a pomegranate branch. It rises up and shows its tongue (jihvā). It appears all night long. All Nāgas become subdued. Whatever one says, it does that. Milk and mustard seeds should be enchanted with the mantra 108 times. If it is scattered everywhere, there is the restoration [of adverse effects] for all [Nāgas]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Jihvā (जिह्वा, “tongue”) or jihvāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., jihvā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Jihvā (“tongue”) also represents one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Jihva (जिह्व) refers to the “tongue”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Also the unconsidered and pleasing teachings, which are vile, of those who are bad are practised by people who are controlled by [their] tongue (jihva) and genitals, etc. (jihvopasthādidaṇḍitaiḥ). The jewel of enlightenment is not easily obtained again for men in the ocean of life like a jewel of great value that has fallen from the hand into a great ocean”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jihva (जिह्व).—The tongue.

Derivable forms: jihvaḥ (जिह्वः).

--- OR ---

Jihvā (जिह्वा).—

1) The tongue.

2) The tongue of fire i. e. a flame.

3) A sentence.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihva (जिह्व).—mf.

(-hvaḥ-hvā) The tongue. E. lih to lick, Unadi affix van, and the initial changed do ja.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihva (जिह्व).—i. e. jihve (a redupl. form of hve, for primitive dhve), + a, I. m. and f. , The tongue, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 6326; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 90.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihva (जिह्व).—[masculine] [Epithet] of Agni; [rarely] = [feminine] jihvā tongue.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jihva (जिह्व):—mfn. (said of Agni), [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā i, 3, 35] (for yahva of [Padapāṭha] and, [Ṛg-veda iii, 2, 9])

2) m. the tongue, [Harivaṃśa 6325 f.]

3) Jihvā (जिह्वा):—[from jihva] a f. (= juhū) idem, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Mahābhārata iii, 16137; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi])

4) [v.s. ...] the tongue or tongues of Agni id est. various forms of flame (3 are named, [Ṛg-veda iii, 20, 2]; generally 7 [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xvii, 79; Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad i, 2, 4] [kālī, karālī, mano-javā, su-lohitā, su-dhūmra-varṇā, sphuliṅginī, viśvarūpī] [Hemacandra]; cf. sapta-jihva; also identified with the 7 winds pra-, ā-, ud-, saṃ-, vi-, pari-, and ni-vaha)

5) [v.s. ...] the tongue of a balance, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 5, 163]

6) [v.s. ...] speech ([Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 11]), [Ṛg-veda iii, 57, 5]

7) [v.s. ...] the root of Tabernaemontana coronaria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] cf. dvi-, madhu-, su-

9) [v.s. ...] agni-jihva etc.;

10) Jihva (जिह्व):—cf. [Latin] lingua; [Gothic] tuggō.

11) Jihvā (जिह्वा):—[from jihva] b f. See hva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihva (जिह्व):—[(hvaḥ-hvā)] 1. m. f. The tongue.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Jihva (जिह्व) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Jibbha, Jīhā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Jihva in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Jihva (ಜಿಹ್ವ):—[noun] = ಜಿಹ್ವೆ - [jihve -] 1.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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