Jihma, Jihmā: 14 definitions



Jihma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Jihmā (जिह्मा, “crooked”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses a ‘transitory state’ (saṃcāribhāva). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Jihma (oblique): bent back, a slow and hidden glance; used to convey secret meanings, and in envy.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Jihmā (जिह्मा).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing a transitory state (saṃcāribhāva);—The Glance in which the eyelids are hanging down and slightly contracted and the eyeballs are concealed, and which casts itself obliquely and slyly is called Jihmā (crooked).

Uses of Jihmā (crooked)—in envy, stupor and indolence.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Jihma (जिह्म) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Jihma).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jihma (जिह्म).—a. [jahāti saralamārgam; hā-man sanvat ālopaśca Uṇ. 1.138]

1) Sloping, athwart, oblique.

2) Crooked, awry, squint; Ṛs.1.12.

3) Tortuous, curved, going irregularly.

4) Curved, bent.

5) Morally crooked, deceitful, dishonest, wicked, unfair; धृतहेतिरप्यधृतजिह्ममतिः (dhṛtahetirapyadhṛtajihmamatiḥ) Ki.6.24; सुहृदर्थमीहितमजिह्मधियाम् (suhṛdarthamīhitamajihmadhiyām) Śi.9.62.

5) Dim, dark, pale-coloured; विधिसमयनियोगाद्दीप्तिसंहारजिह्मम् (vidhisamayaniyogāddīptisaṃhārajihmam) Ki.1.46.

6) Slow, lazy.

-hmam 1 Dishonesty; falsehood; जिह्माप्रायं व्यवहृतम् (jihmāprāyaṃ vyavahṛtam) Bhāg.1.14.4; समर्थस्त्वं रणे हन्तुं विक्रमे जिह्मकारिणम् (samarthastvaṃ raṇe hantuṃ vikrame jihmakāriṇam) Rām.4.27.36.

2) The Tagara tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jihma (जिह्म).—adj. (in these senses recorded nowhere else; Sanskrit, Pali jimha, and Prakrit jimha, jimma, regularly crooked or fig. dishonest), (1) bereft of light, obscured, not shining, dull; regularly said of entities regarded as brightly shining in themselves, but having their light eclipsed or obscured by a greater radiance, especially that emitted or caused by the Buddha; so at the bodhi-tree Buddha causes a radiance which makes the divine abodes of the gods jihma Mahāvastu ii.316.18 or jihmavarṇa Mahāvastu ii.313.17; 316.16 and by Senart's em. (for mss. jihmabala) 295.1; 296.9; 304.1; 308.16 (in all these jihma-bala might stand, of obscured, dulled power); similarly, jihma vipaśyatha (so divide) divya ātmabhāvāṃ Lalitavistara 49.12 (verse; Apsarases speak, looking at Māyā's superior beauty), see how (our) divine bodies are eclipsed (in splendor); jihma sarvatuṣitālayo bhuto (m.c. for bhūto) 54.3 (verse), the whole abode of the Tuṣita became splendorless; sarvāṇi mārabhavanāni karonti jihmā 296.16 (verse); jihma (so divide; acc. sg.) kurvati jagat sadevakam Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 6.15 (verse); also fig. of the intelligence and senses; vijñāna, in Mahāvastu ii.355.14 (verse) ye gṛddhā lābhasatkāre jihma-vijñāna-(dull intelligence)-niśritā; and Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 31.12 (apāyeṣūpapanno) durgandho bhavati jihmendriyo bhavaty avyaktendriyaḥ,…of dull and obscure (see avyakta) senses; (2) (compare jihmīkṛtaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 5200, below s.v. jihmīkaroti, with Tibetan) disappointed, depressed, saddened, despondent: in Lalitavistara 193.19 (verse) read (with v.l.) jihmā-jihma (n. pl., āmreḍita) sudurmanā, very depressed and downcast; con- firmed by Tibetan dman zhiṅ dman; probably so, a-jihma in Sukhāvatīvyūha 25.16 (prose) aśaṅko 'jihmo, free from doubt and despondency (in a description of a Bodhisattva); to be sure the next words are 'śaṭho 'māyāvī, which suggest the Sanskrit meaning, not deceitful, but these lists of charac- teristics are apt to go in pairs, and aśaṅka suggests this [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] meaning of (a-)jihma, which is otherwise known [Page243-b+ 71] and easily develops from mg (1). See the following items, which support both mgs.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihma (जिह्म).—mfn.

(-hmaḥ-hmā-hmaṃ) 1. Morally Crooked. 2. Dishonest. 3. Slow, lazy. 4. Dim, dark. 5. Oblique squint. m.

(-hmaḥ) A tree, (Tabernæmontana coronaria.) E. to quit, (a straight line,) man Unadi affix, and the root reduplicated, deriv, irr. hā man sanvat ālopaśca .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihma (जिह्म).— (probably akin to hvṛ, for primitive jihvṛ, i. e. redupl. hvṛ, + a), adj., f. . 1. Oblique, Chr. 292, 11 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 11. 2. Squinting, [Suśruta] 2, 349, 3. 3. Crooked, fallacious, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 89, 69. 4. ºmam, adv. Astray, Mahābhārata 5, 7361.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jihma (जिह्म).—[adjective] not straight or upright, oblique, transverse, crooked; [with] i, gam, etc. go awry or astray, fail, miss ([ablative]).

— [neuter] & † [feminine] falsehood, dishonesty.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jihma (जिह्म):—mf(ā)n. ([Nirukta, by Yāska viii 15]) oblique, transverse, athwart, [Ṛg-veda i f.; Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa v]

2) squinting (as the eye), [i, 5; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

3) with √i ([Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iii, v; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa v, 9]), gam, nir-ṛch ([Atharva-veda xii, 4, 53]), 1. as ([Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xi]), to go irregularly, turn off from the right way, miss the aim ([ablative])

4) crooked, tortuous, curved, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) morally crooked, deceitful, false, dishonest, [Yājñavalkya ii, 165; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) slow, lazy, [Naiṣadha-carita ii, 102]

7) dim, dulled, [Kirātārjunīya]

8) n. falsehood, dishonesty, [Praśna-upaniṣad i, 16; Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa i, 14, 4];—Tabernaemontana coronaria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) n. cf. ā, vi-.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Jihma (जिह्म):——

1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) nach unten oder seitwärts abfallend , schräg , schief ; schielend (vom Auge). Mit i , gam , nis-arch und as seitwärts gehen , das Ziel verfehlen , vom rechten Wege abkommen ; mit Abl. des Gegenstandes , den man verfehlt oder dessen man verlustig geht. jihmaṃ (Adv.) car in die Irre gehen , das Ziel verfehlen. jihmaprekṣin Adj. seitwärts sehend , schielend. — b) krumme Wege — , hinterlistig zu Werke gehend , falsch , unwahr , unredlich. jihma auf eine unehrliche , hinterlistige Weise. — c) langsam , träge , faul [Naiṣadhacarita 2,102.] —

2) n. — a) Falschheit , Unehrlichkeit [53,10.] — b) *Tabernaemontana coronaria [Rājan 10,145.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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