Ishu, Iṣu, Īṣu: 21 definitions


Ishu means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Jainism, Prakrit, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Iṣu and Īṣu can be transliterated into English as Isu or Ishu, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda

Iṣu (इषु) refers to a weapon (“arrow”). It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.

Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Iṣu (इषु).—1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle. Note: Iṣu is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Iṣu (इषु) refers to “arrows”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] May goddess Bhāratī shine upon me, I pray. She carries a rosary and a book in her hands, she has the stainless complexion of the full moon, and she embodies the entirety of knowledge. I venerate the beloved husband of Rati, the beautiful Mind-born [God Kāmadeva]. He carries a bow and arrows of flowers (puṣpa-iṣu-cāpapuṣpeṣucāpaṃ puṣpeṣumantaṃ) and his complexion resembles the petals of Dhak. [Again,] I approach the beloved husband of Prīti, bent round like the full moon, [serving as] the base for the ring of goddesses, in order to draw the Śrīcakra for the sake of prosperity. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Iṣu (इषु) represents the number 5 (five) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 5—iṣu] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Iṣu (इषु) refers to the “arrow” (of the bow of the charioteer), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.8 (“The detailed description of the chariot etc.”).—Accordingly, as Sanatkumāra narrated to Vyāsa: “The divine chariot of lord Śiva consisting of all the worlds was built by Viśvakarman with devoted effort. [...] Goddess Sarasvatī in the form of the Vedas constituted the bells of the bow. The brilliant Viṣṇu became the arrow (iṣu) and Agni the spear-head [iṣurviṣṇurmahātejāstvagniśśalyaṃ]. O sage, the four Vedas are said to be his horses. The remaining planets became their embellishments. His army came up from water. The winds were his feathers, wings etc. Vyāsa and other sages were the drivers of the vehicle. [...]”

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Iṣu (इषु) is the usual name for ‘arrow’ from the Ṛgveda onwards. Other names are Sarya, Sārī, and Bāna. In the hymn of the Ṛgveda, which gives a catalogue of armour, two kinds of arrows are distinctly referred to: the one is poisoned (ālāktā), and has a head of horn (ruruśīrṣṇī); the other is copper-, bronze-, or iron-headed (ayomukha). Poisoned (digdhā) arrows are also referred to in the Atharvaveda. The arrows were feathered. The parts of an arrow are enumerated in the Atharvaveda as the shaft (śalya), the feather-socket (parṇadhi), the point (śrṅga), the neck of the point in which the shaft is fixed (kulmala), and the Apaskambha and Apāstha, which are of more doubtful significance.

In the Aitareya Brāhmana the parts of an arrow are given as the point (anīka), the śalya, tejana, and the feathers (parnani), where śalya and tejana must apparently mean the upper and lower parts of the shaft, since it is reasonable to suppose that the arrow is described as a whole consecutively. So in the Atharvaveda the arrow of Kāma is described as having feathers, a shaft (śalya), and a firm fastening (kulmala). The arrow was shot from the ear, and so is described in the Ṛgveda as “having the ear for its place of birth”.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Iṣu.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: iṣu is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Ishu [ଇଷୁ] in the Odia language is the name of a plant identified with Aristolochia indica L. from the Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort) family having the following synonyms: Aristolochia maysorensis, Aristolochia pandurata, Aristolochia lanceolata. For the possible medicinal usage of ishu, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Iṣu (इषु).—m., f. [iṣ-u; cf. also Uṇādi-sūtra 1.13]

1) An arrow; यामिषुं (yāmiṣuṃ)... हस्ते बिभर्षि (haste bibharṣi) Śvet.3.6; इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि (iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.4.

2) The number five.

3) (In Math.) A versed sine.

4) Name of a Soma ceremony.

Derivable forms: iṣuḥ (इषुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Iṣu (इषु).—nt. (in Sanskrit only m., f.), arrow: Mahāvastu ii.82.4 and 5 iṣu kṣiptaṃ (n. sg.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣu (इषु).—mf.

(-ṣuḥ-ṣuḥ) 1. An arrow. 2. A versed sine. E. iṣ to go, and u Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣu (इषु).—[iṣ + u] 1., m. and f. An arrow.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣu (इषु).—[masculine] [feminine] arrow; poss. iṣumant (iṣumant).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Iṣu (इषु):—[from iṣ] a mf. an arrow, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa; Śakuntalā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] (in mathematics) a versed sine

3) [v.s. ...] Name of a Soma ceremony, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

4) [v.s. ...] the number five, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a particular constellation, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka xii, 7.]

6) [v.s. ...] [According to Dayānanda iṣu may mean ‘ray of light’; cf. [Greek] ἰός; [Zend] ishu.]

7) [v.s. ...] m. [dual number] (also) Name of two Viṣṭutis, [???]

8) b iṣu-dhi, etc. See 1. iṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣu (इषु):—(ṣuḥ) 2. m. f. An arrow.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Iṣu (इषु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Isu, Usu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ishu in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Isu (इसु) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Iṣu.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Iṣu (ಇಷು):—

1) [noun] a slender shaft, usu. pointed at one end and feathered at the other, for shooting from a bow; an arrow.

2) [noun] a symbol for the number five.

--- OR ---

Isu (ಇಸು):—

1) [verb] to shoot an arrow.

2) [verb] to press; to compress.

3) [verb] to eject as from a syringe.

--- OR ---

Isu (ಇಸು):—[verb] to receive; to accept.

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Isu (ಇಸು):—[noun] a slender shaft, usually pointed at one end and feathered at the other, for shooting from a bow ; an arrow.

--- OR ---

Īsu (ಈಸು):—

1) [verb] to move through water by movements of the arms and legs or of flippers, fins, tail, etc.; to swim.

2) [verb] to play in a subject freely; to be well versed in; ಈಸಬೀಳು [isabilu] īsabīḷu to dive into water for swimming; ಈಸಬೇಕು, ಇದ್ದು ಜಯಿಸಬೇಕು [isabeku, iddu jayisabeku] īsabēku, iddu jayisabēku (prov.) do not run away from the hard realities of life; ಈಸುವವನಿಗೆ ಮೀಸೆ ಭಾರವೇ [isuvavanige mise bharave]? īuvavanige mīse bhāravē? (prov.) what burden does a fly add to a sailing ship?.

--- OR ---

Īsu (ಈಸು):—

1) [verb] to cause to give.

2) [verb] to give; to hand over the possession to.

3) [verb] to take; to receive; to accept; ಈಸಿಕೊಡು [isikodu] īsikoḍu to cause to give; 2. to take (from one) and give (it) to (another); ಈಸಿಕೊಳ್ [isikol] īsikoḷto take; to receive; to accept; ಈಸುಕೊಳ್ [isukol] īsukoḷ= ಈಸಿಕೊಳ್ [isikol]; ಈಸುಕೊಳ್ಳು [isukollu] īsukoḷḷu = ಈಸಿಕೊಳ್ [isikol]; ಈಸುವಾರ್ [isuvar] īsuvār (pl.) those who give; givers.

--- OR ---

Īsu (ಈಸು):—[verb] to pull (towards); to draw.

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Īsu (ಈಸು):—[noun] the act or an instance of swimming; swimming.

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Īsu (ಈಸು):—

1) [adjective] amounting to this much.

2) [adjective] small in size, amount, number or degree; not big, large or great; not much.

3) [adjective] short in duration or distance.

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Īsu (ಈಸು):—

1) [noun] this much quantity, number, capacity; etc.

2) [noun] ಈಸರು [isaru] īsaru (pl.) this many people; ಈಸೈಸು [isaisu] īsaisu this much or that much quantity; ಈಸೊಂದು [isomdu] īsondu amounting to, totalling this much; this much.

--- OR ---

Īsu (ಈಸು):—[adverb] this much.

--- OR ---

Īsu (ಈಸು):—

1) [noun] the beam that connects the plough to the yoke.

2) [noun] the main beam of [a] cart that is fixed across the axle.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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