Ishta, Iṣṭa: 25 definitions

Introduction:

Ishta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Iṣṭa can be transliterated into English as Ista or Ishta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Isht.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Iṣṭa (इष्ट, “desired”) refers to a “favourable mind”, and is one of the three aspects of the mind (manas), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “everything favourable (iṣṭa) should be represented by the happy movement of limbs, horripilation and the opening of the mouth. In case of a favourable sound, form, touch, smell or taste, one should show a happy face by concentrating the senses concerned in mind”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Iṣṭa (इष्ट).—A word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form i.e. the correct form : cf. इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवतिः (iṣṭānvākhyānaṃ khalvapi bhavatiḥ) M. Bh.I.1. Āhn. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः (yogavibhāgādiṣṭasiddhiḥ) Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) refers to “prosperity”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “When Jupiter passes through the northern path, there will be health and happiness in the land; when he passes through the southern path, the reverse of these will be the case; and when he passes through the middle path, there will be neither much of the former nor much of the latter. If, in one year, Jupiter should pass through a space of two stellar divisions, there will be prosperity [i.e., iṣṭa] in the land; if he should pass through two and a half of such divisions, there will not be much of it; and if at any time, he should pass through over two and a half of these divisions, crops will be injured. [...]”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Iṣṭa (इष्ट).—1. Given, desired or chosen at pleasure. 2. iṣṭagraha i.e., desired or given planet. Note: Iṣṭa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) refers to the “desired boon”, mentioned as one of the objects held in the hands of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.6. Accordingly:—“[...] Directly perceiving the lord of Durgā she [viz., Sandhyā] eulogised the lord of the worlds: [...] Obeisance to Thee, the Yogin whose Saguṇa form is pure, lovely, bedecked in jewels, as white and clean as camphor and which holds in its hand the desired boon (iṣṭa), fearlessness, the trident and the scalp”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) refers to “= iṣṭakā ? § 2.12.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) refers to “auspicious (days)”, according to the Piṅgalāmata (verse 10.33-36).—Accordingly, [while describing the pura on a 9-by-9-plan and the 32 padas]—“My dear, at Yama and Gandharva one should make a maṭha with three storeys, two [storeys] or one storey. [These are] the best, middling and least [maṭhas] in turn. That is the place for the Ācārya to sleep, for [prognostication of] auspicious days (iṣṭa-āhnika), triumph, meditation, and the practice of Yoga. [There the teacher] may associate with vīras, sharing vīra food and drink, etc.”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) refers to the “sacred rites”, according to Kṣemarāja’s commentary on the Svacchandatantra verse 4.85.—Accordingly, “The mundane path is the observance according to śruti and smṛti. The sacred rites (iṣṭa) [consist of] such actions as bathing at a sacred site and giving away food. The meritorious acts are [the donations and setting up of] such things as wells, tanks and monasteries for ascetics”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) refers to the “algebraic method” and represents one of the various methods of Guṇana (“multiplication”) which represents one of the the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—These methods [e.g., iṣṭa] were transmitted to Arabia in the eighth century and were thence communicated to Europe, where they occur in the writings of medieval mathematicians.

Bhāskara II in the Līlāvatī: “Multiply by the multiplicator diminished or increased by an assumed number, adding or subtracting (respectively) the product of the multiplicand and the assumed number”.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Iṣṭa).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) or Iṣṭatā refers to “desirability”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “There ought to be steadfastness in equanimity for him whose mind does not become deluded by sentient and insentient beings, by desirability and undesirability (iṣṭaiṣṭāniṣṭatayā), [and] by situations”.

Synonyms: Vāñchaka, Āśaṃsin, Prārthanīya.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

iṣṭa (इष्ट).—(S) Wished or desired: loved or liked: approved, preferred, cherished. 2 Favorable or auspicious--an aspect, a conjunction &c. 3 In arithmetic. Assumed or supposed. Ex. of comp. iṣṭakāḷa, iṣṭaghaṭī or ghaṭikā, iṣṭamuhūrtta, iṣṭarāśi.

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iṣṭa (इष्ट).—m (S) A friend. 2 n f S An act of sacrifice or oblation; any essential ceremony, as ablution, investiture &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

iṣṭa (इष्ट).—m A friend. a Desired; favourable; assumed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Iṣṭa (इष्ट).—p. p. [iṣ icchāyāṃ karmaṇi kta]

1) Wished, desired, longed for, wished for; उपपन्नो गुणैरिष्टैः (upapanno guṇairiṣṭaiḥ) Nala.1.1.

2) Beloved, agreeable, liked, favourite, dear; °आत्मजः (ātmajaḥ) Mu.2.8 fond of sons.

3) Worshipped, reverenced.

4) Respected.

5) Approved, regarded as good.

6) Desirable; see इष्टापूर्त (iṣṭāpūrta).

6) Valid.

7) Sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices.

8) Supposed (kalpita); oft. used in Līlavatī.

-ṣṭaḥ 1 A lover, husband, beloved person; इष्टप्रवासजनितानि (iṣṭapravāsajanitāni) Ś.4.3.

2) A friend; इष्टानामिष्ट- कर्मकृत (iṣṭānāmiṣṭa- karmakṛta) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.57;2.172.

3) Name of a tree (eraṃḍa).

4) Name of Viṣṇu.

5) A sacrifice.

-ṣṭā Name of a tree (śamī).

-ṣṭam 1 Wish, desire.

2) A holy ceremony or संस्कार (saṃskāra). एतदिष्टं प्रवृत्ताख्यम् (etadiṣṭaṃ pravṛttākhyam) Bhāgavata 7.15.49.

3) A sacrifice; Bṛ. Up.4.1.2; see इष्टापूर्त (iṣṭāpūrta). ind. Voluntarily.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Iṣṭā (इष्टा).—(compare AMg. iṭṭā, with non-aspirate, beside iṭṭayā = Sanskrit iṣṭakā), brick: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 50.9 (verse) iṣṭā-mayā (ed. em. °yān)…stūpān. Perhaps loss of suffixal ka m.c.; § 22.24.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣṭa (इष्ट).—mfn.

(-ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) 1. Wished, desired. 2. Cherished, beloved. 3. Worshipped, reverenced, respected. m.

(-ṣṭaḥ) 1. A lover, a husband. 2. The Castor-oil tree. n.

(-ṣṭaṃ) 1. An act of sacrifice, an oblation, &c. 2. An essential ceremony, as ablution, investiture, &c. ind. (-ṣṭam) Voluntarily. E. iṣ to desire, or iṣ substituted for yaj to sacrifice, and kta aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣṭa (इष्ट).—1. [adjective] sought, wished for, desired, liked, pleasant, dear; auspicious, happy; approved, settled, valid. [masculine] favourite, lover, husband; [neuter] wish, desire.

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Iṣṭa (इष्ट).—2. [adjective] sacrificed; [masculine] [neuter] sacrifice.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Iṣṭa (इष्ट):—[from iṣ] 1. iṣṭa mfn. (for 2. See sub voce), sought, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] wished, desired

3) [v.s. ...] liked, beloved

4) [v.s. ...] agreeable

5) [v.s. ...] cherished, [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Pañcatantra; Śakuntalā] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] reverenced, respected

7) [v.s. ...] regarded as good, approved, [Manu-smṛti; Sāṃkhyakārikā]

8) [v.s. ...] valid

9) [v.s. ...] m. a lover, a husband, [Śakuntalā 83 c]

10) [v.s. ...] the plant Ricinus Communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Iṣṭā (इष्टा):—[from iṣṭa > iṣ] f. Name of a plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Iṣṭa (इष्ट):—[from iṣ] n. wish, desire, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa]

13) 2. iṣṭa mfn. ([past participle] [from] √yaj; for 1. iṣṭa See [column]2) sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc.

14) m. sacrifice, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa xiii, 15]

15) n. sacrificing, sacrifice

16) sacred rite, sacrament, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iṣṭa (इष्ट):—[(ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) a.] Wished. m. Castor-oil tree; a lover. n. A sacrifice. adv. Voluntarily.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Icchiya, Iṭṭha, Jaṭṭha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ishta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Iṣṭa (इष्ट) [Also spelled isht]:—(a) adored; favoured, favourite; ~[tama] optimum; •[āyu] optimum age; ~[deva] a household diety; -[siddhi] expediency.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Iṣṭa (ಇಷ್ಟ):—

1) [adjective] that is wished for; desired.

2) [adjective] that is providing comfort.

3) [adjective] that is dear, beloved; ಇಷ್ಟವಾಗು [ishtavagu] iṣṭavāgu to be liked; to suit (one’s) taste.

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Iṣṭa (ಇಷ್ಟ):—

1) [noun] a beloved man; a darling.

2) [noun] that which is desired.

3) [noun] a desire; a strong wish or craving.

4) [noun] liking; inclination; taste; ನಿನ್ನ ಇಷ್ಟ [ninna ishta] / ನಿನ್ನಿಷ್ಟ [ninnishta] ninna iṣṭa/ninniṣṭa your choice; your decision; as you please.

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Iṣṭa (ಇಷ್ಟ):—[adjective] that is offered in a sacrifice (to the gods); sacrificed.

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Iṣṭa (ಇಷ್ಟ):—[noun] a religious sacrifice.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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