Irshya, Īrṣyā, Īrṣya: 26 definitions


Irshya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Īrṣyā and Īrṣya can be transliterated into English as Irsya or Irshya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Ershya.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या, “jealousy”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. It is also known as Asūyā. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Source: Natya Shastra

Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य, “jealousy”).—Where there is affection there is fear also. And where there is jealousy (īrṣya) there occurs love (madana). The causes of this jealousy are fourfold:

  1. vaimanasya (depression),
  2. vyalīka (mixed feeling),
  3. vipriya (disgust),
  4. manyu (anger).
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या) refers to “jealousy” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (e.g., īrṣyā) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Īrsyā (ईर्स्या) possibly refers to “envy” (desire to strike or even take away the life), according to the Manusmṛti 7.50. Accordingly, “[...] tale-bearing (paiśunya), Treachery (droha?), Envy (īrṣya), Slandering (sāhasa?), Misappropriation of property (arthadūṣaṇa), Cruelty of speech (vāgdaṇḍa) and of Assault (pāruṣya);—these constitute the eightfold set born of Anger. [...] in the set born of anger (krodhaja),—Assault (daṇḍapātana), Cruelty of speech (vākpāruṣya) and Misappropriation of property (arthadūṣaṇa),—are to be regarded as the three most pernicious (kaṣṭatama)”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या) refers to “(the urges of) jealousy”, mentioned in verse 4.25 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] He, however, who desires welfare both after his death and here shall always suppress the urges of avarice, jealousy, hatred, envy, passion [viz., lobha-īrṣyā-dveṣa-mātsarya-rāga], etc. after having subjugated his senses [viz., jitendriya]”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य) refers to “envy”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 15.3-4ab, while describing protection rituals]—“[The Mantrin] says the [Amṛteśa] mantra and performs exorcism to destroy all demons and also all [those] full of all envy (sa-īrṣya). It protects, therefore he calls [white mustard] sarṣapa. It protects from all sides”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या) refers to “envy”, and represents one of the eighteen Addictions or Vices (vyasana) which are to be practised within proper bounds for the delight of the enjoyments of the world, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] It has been said that there are eighteen addictions. These are the outcome of the desire for earthly enjovments. [...] Envy (īrṣyā) means intolerance of others’ prosperity. It is praise-worthy when it incites to action against rivals or enemies, because inspired by envy, people try to destroy them. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या, “envy”) refers to one of ten types of manifestly active defilements (paryavasthāna) according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13.—The Bodhisattvas (accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata) excelled in destroying various these ten manifestly active defilements (e.g., Īrṣyā).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Īrṣyī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Īrṣya] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या, “delusion”) refers to one of the “five afflictions” (pañcakleśa), according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The tiger skin (vyāghracarma) symbolizes a fully developed Yogī, able to route the Buddhist devil Māra, and save those overcome by the Pañcakleśa, "The Five Afflictions", (the Mahāyāna version of the Triviṣa, "Three Poisons"). 1) moha, "delusion", 2) rāga, "passion", 3) dveṣa, "hatred", 4) māna, "pride", 5) īrṣyā, "jealousy.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या, “jealousy”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., īrṣyā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Īrṣyā also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

Source: Google Books: Divine Stories

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या, “envy”) refers to one of the “Nine bonds to Existence” (navasaṃyojana).—The term saṃyojana is usually translated as “fetter,” but these nine [e.g., envy (īrṣyā)] do not correspond to the standard list of fetters (e.g, ten fetters, five lower fetters, three fetters).

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या).—f S pop. īrṣā f Impatience of another's prosperity, emulation, rivalry, the spirit of competition or vieing. v dhara, yē. īrṣā dēṇēṃ To incite, stimulate, urge on.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या).—f Emulation, the spirit of competition or vieing.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य).—a. Envious, jealous.

See also (synonyms): īrṣyu, īrṣyaka.

--- OR ---

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या).—[īrṣy-ap] Envy, jealousy, envy of another's success, spite, malice.

See also (synonyms): īrṣā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Irṣyā (इर्ष्या).—= Sanskrit īrṣyā, jealousy: all mss. at Lalitavistara 52.13; 372.17. Weller 20 would em. to īrṣyā; but this may be only Sanskritization of semi-MIndic ir°, compare iryā- etc. As Weller notes, irṣyā is found as v.l. in some mss. of Mahāvastu (i.37.6; 44.13, four of six mss.; iii.27.17; 164.19); tho in all these cases at least one ms. has īr°, the form ir° may have been original.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य).—mfn.

(-rṣyaḥ-rṣyā-rṣyaṃ) Envious, envying. f.

(-rṣyā) 1. Envy or impatience of another’s success. 2. Spite, malice. E. īrṣya to envy, and ac and ṭāpa affixes; also, but according to the best writers, inaccurately written īrṣā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या).—[īrṣy + ā], f. 1. Envy, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 48. 2. Jealousy, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या).—[feminine] envy, jealousy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य):—[from īrkṣy] mfn. envious, envying, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या):—[from īrṣya > īrkṣy] f. envy or impatience of another’s success

3) [v.s. ...] spite, malice

4) [v.s. ...] jealousy, [Atharva-veda; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Īrṣya (ईर्ष्य):—īrṣyati 1. a. To envy.

2) [(rṣyaḥ-rṣyā-rṣyaṃ) a.] Envious. f. Envy.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Issā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Irshya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या) [Also spelled ershya]:—(nf) jealousy; ~[lu] jealous; ~[lutā] jealousness.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Īrṣyā (ईर्ष्या):—n. envy; jealousy; envy of another's success; spilt; malice;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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