Havis, Haviṣ, Havish: 18 definitions


Havis means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Haviṣ can be transliterated into English as Havis or Havish, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Havis (हविस्) is a Sanskrit word referring to “sacrificial cake” and such things. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 5.7)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Havis (हविस्) refers to the “oblation” to be offered for gods, as described in verse 25.87b-89a of the 8th-century Īśvarasaṃhitā. Accordingly, “the oblation (havis) (to be offered) for gods is stated to be made free from (small) pieces of stones, chaff, small particles, prepared out of rice grains that are unbaked, coated or soaked in cow’s milk, and ghee, mixed up with fruits and pieces of jaggery and not having artificial salt”. Also, in verse 90b-91a, “the best oblation is to be prepared when śāntika and vratayajña are done, with artificial salt mixed up with jaggery, milk and fruits”.

There are eight kinds of oblations (havis) mentioned:

  1. Pāyasānna,
  2. Guḍānna,
  3. Mudgānna,
  4. Kevalodana,
  5. Dadhyanna,
  6. Tilānna.
Source: archive.org: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

1) Havis (हविस्) refers to “varieties of food offered to the deity”, as discussed in the twenty-fifth chapter of the Īśvarasaṃhitā (printed edition), a Pāñcarātra work in 8200 verses and 24 chapters dealing with topics such as routines of temple worship, major and minor festivals, temple-building and initiation.—Description of the chapter [kuṇḍasruksruvalakṣaṇahaviḥpākavidhāna]: [...] The sixth question the sages had asked concerned the preparation of havis, etc. Nārada turns to this and begins to answer it by telling what grains are to be used, how they are to be collected and from where, how they are to be prepared and by whom and under what conditions, etc., and what dishes can be made from these (57-92). A special dish, haviṣpāka, which is offered to the deity, is then described (93-106). Further varieties of havis (that is, some varieties that will not be offered into the fire) are treated rice with milk, rice with sugar, rice with ghee, and vegetable mixtures and He tells what occasions call for these preparations (107-119). [...]

2) Havis (हविस्) refers to “offerings made to the Lord”, according to the eighteenth chapter of the Kapiñjalasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra work consisting of 1550 verses dealing with a variety of topics such as worship in a temple, choosing an Ācārya, architecture, town-planning and iconography. Description of the chapter [havir-lakṣaṇa]:—If havis, properly prepared and offered, pleases the Lord, then good will come to the world, declares Kapiñjala (1-2). Various grains are mentioned as being appropriate for havis-offerings (3-6). How they are prepared by the Yajamāna’s wife, cooked, what kind of vessel they are to be cooked in, how much water is to be used, how the cook is to be attired, etc., is given (7-22a). The havis-offerings are put in from 12 to 50 vessels [here, then, several preparations are named], and these are then to be offered to the Lord first, and afterward other preparations are offered to Viṣvaksena. [...]

3) Havis (हविस्) refers to “cooked food-offerings”, as discussed in the twelfth chapter of the Nāradīyasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra document comprising over 3000 verses in 30 chapters presenting in a narrative framework the teachings of Nārada to Gautama, dealing primarily with modes of worship and festivals.—Description of the chapter [havir-vidhāna]: Gautama inquires about the different kinds of fire-offerings (1). Nārada speaks first of acceptable ingredient grains for making caru-cakes used in nitya, naimittika and kāmya offerings (2-12). Then he turns to the distinctions that may be made according to quantities of specific grains offered as havis and bali—noting that they may be classified as “good,” “better,” and “best” (13-25). He also speaks of other offerings of cooked food (havis) made on various occasions, continuing that these must be prepared according to strict recipes and under hygienic and controlled conditions—emphasizing in the latter instance the importance of mantras (26-45). [...]

4) Havis (हविस्) or Mahāhavis refers to “fire-offerings”, as discussed in the twenty-sixth chapter of the Nāradīyasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra document comprising over 3000 verses in 30 chapters presenting in a narrative framework the teachings of Nārada to Gautama, dealing primarily with modes of worship and festivals.—Description of the chapter [mahā-havir-vidhāna]: Gautama asks to have the procedural details clarified regarding mahā-havis-offerings. Nārada replies that first a rectangular āsana-seat is to be prepared under a maṇḍapa-pavilion. Here the utsavabimba-icon is to be brought for bathing, after which it is decorated, given food-offerings and other attentions (1-13). Then dīkṣita-priests bring there havis-offerings, placing them along with other food-stuffs on a leaf-covered vedī-pedestal. [...]

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Havis (हविस्) or Naivedya refers to “ritual food offering” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Havis].

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Havis (हविस्) refers to “fire oblations”, according to the Mattavilāsaprahasana.—Accordingly, as the Kāpālika cries out: “My darling, look. This pub resembles the Vedic sacrificial ground. For its signpost resembles the sacrificial pillar; in this case alcohol is the Soma, drunkards are the sacrificial priests, the wine glasses are the special cups for drinking Soma, the roasted meat and other (śūlyamāṃsa-prabhṛtaya) appetizers (upadaṃśā) are the fire oblations (havis-viśeṣa), the drunken babblings are the sacrificial formulae, the songs are the Sāman-hymns, the pitchers are the sacrificial ladles, thirst is the fire and the owner of the pub is the patron of the sacrifice”

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Havis (हविस्) refers to the “sacrificial offerings” (e.g. of a Vedic sacrifice), as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.27. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once a great sacrifice was started by Dakṣa, [...] In that altar, sacrifice itself was present in its beautiful embodied form. The excellent sages became the holders of the Vedas. The sacrificial fire evinced its diverse forms in a thousand ways, during the sacrificial festivities, in order to receive the sacrificial offerings (havis) of Dakṣa”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Havis (हविस्) refers to “clarified butter mixed with rice” and represents one of the items offered to the nine planets (navagraha), according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 302-303: Faggots to be burned]—These two verses prescribe different faggots [i.e., havis] to be burned for grahas with offerings of honey, ghee, dadhi, and milk. It is interesting to note that some of the faggots (i.e. parāśa, khadira, pippala, and śamī) mentioned here are also used in the Suśrutasaṃhitā in the context (Uttaratantra chapters 27-37) of curing the diseases caused by grahas, which, in this case, are not planetary. [verse 304-305: Cooked rice (odana) to be offered to grahas]

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Havis (हविस्) is the general term for an offering to the gods, ‘oblation’, whether of grain, or Soma, or milk, or clarified butter, etc. It is common from the Rigveda onwards.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Havis (हविस्) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Havis] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Havis (हविस्).—n. [hūyate hu-karmaṇi asun]

1) An oblation or burnt offering in general; वहति विधिहुतं या हविः (vahati vidhihutaṃ yā haviḥ) Ś.1.1; Ms. 3.87,132;5.7;6.12.

2) Clarified butter; न जातु कामः कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति । हविषा कृष्णवर्त्मेव भूय एवाभिवर्धते (na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānāmupabhogena śāmyati | haviṣā kṛṣṇavartmeva bhūya evābhivardhate) Bhāgavata 9.19.14.

3) Water.

4) Name of Śiva.

5) A sacrifice; स्यादन्यायत्वादिज्यागामी हविःशब्दः (syādanyāyatvādijyāgāmī haviḥśabdaḥ) MS.6.4.21; यदीमानि हवींषीह विमथिष्यन्त्यसाधवः (yadīmāni havīṃṣīha vimathiṣyantyasādhavaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.8.1.

6) Food (anna); ब्राह्मणेभ्यो हविर्दत्वा मुच्येत तेन पात्मना (brāhmaṇebhyo havirdatvā mucyeta tena pātmanā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 13.136.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Havis (हविस्).—n.

(-viḥ) 1. Clarified butter. 2. An intended oblation, the article to be so offered, usually clarified butter. 3. Water. E. hu to offer in oblation, asi Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Havis (हविस्).—i. e. hu + is, n. 1. Clarified butter, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 4, 24. 2. An oblation, sacrifice, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 100, 1 = [Rigveda.] vii. 15, 1; [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Havis (हविस्).—[neuter] oblation or gift for the gods, [especially] grain (parched, boiled, as porridge or as cake), Soma, milk, clarified butter, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Haviṣ (हविष्):—[from hava] in [compound] for havis.

2) Havis (हविस्):—[from hava] n. an oblation or burnt offering, anything offered as an oblation with fire (as clarified butter, milk, Soma, grain; haviṣkṛ, ‘to prepare an oblation’, ‘make into an oblation’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12]

4) [v.s. ...] fire, [Kālacakra]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a Marutvat (?), [Kālacakra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Havis (हविस्):—(viḥ) 5. n. Ghi; an intended oblation of it; water.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Havis (हविस्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Havi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Havis in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Havis (ஹவிஸ்) noun < havis.

1. See அவி³. [avi³.]

2. Rice cooked without straining the conjee; கஞ்சிவடியாது சமைக்குஞ் சோறு. [kanchivadiyathu samaikkugn soru.] Brāh.

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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