Harishcandra, Hariścandra, Harishcamdra: 20 definitions


Harishcandra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Hariścandra can be transliterated into English as Hariscandra or Harishcandra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Harishchandra.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Natyashastra glossary
Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands of Famous Emperors.—Hariśchandra: the Śukatuṇḍa hand.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र):—Son of Triśaṅku, or, Satyavrata (son of Tribandhana). He had no son, but after promising to perform a sacrifice for Varuṇa, he begot a son named Rohita. A second son was bought for him by Rohita, named Śunaḥśepha, whom was to be used for the sacrifice. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.7.7-20)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—A King of the solar dynasty very much reputed for his unique truthfulness and integrity. He was the son of the famous Triśaṅku. Genealogy. See under Triśaṅku. A brief life-sketch. To keep his plighted word and for the sake of truth he gifted away the whole of his kingdom to Viśvāmitra. When that was not sufficient he cleared his debts to Viśvāmitra with the money got by selling his wife, Candramatī, his son, Lohitāśva and finally himself. And, he earned his livelihood with the wages he got for cremating corpses, himself doing duties as guard at a burning ghat and as the slave to a Cāṇḍāla. Ultimately the Trimūrtis (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva) appeared and heaped on him all the boons he desired and rewarded him with high honours. (See for details para 4 under Viśvāmitra). (See full article at Story of Hariścandra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—An emperor of ancient times, to whom Brahmā gave as a gift a palace which automatically produced everything desired by its owner. He was lord over the seven islands. About his former birth and the plenitude of his riches the Padma Purāṇa (Uttara khaṇḍa, Chapter 32) has the following story to say:—

2) Hariścandra himself was surprised that he became so very rich in the matter of children and of wealth. Wondering what actions of his entitled him to so much wealth and to his position which was equal to Indra’s the emperor went to Sumeru by vimāna where he questioned Sanatkumāra, a brahminical sage seated in meditation on a golden stone as to who he was in his past life and to which actions of his past life he owed all the present wealth and prosperity. The great sage replied as follows:—

2) "In the past birth you were a truthful and purehearted vaiśya; you gave up your own profession and so you were ousted from home by your own people. At that time a famine and other scarcity conditions occurred there. One day you got into a pond along with your wife, collected lotus flowers from it and went to Kāśī to sell the flowers. But, no one purchased the flowers. At last, Candramatī, daughter of Indradyumna purchased the flowers for a yajña she was performing. When you saw Viṣṇu installed along with Ādityabhagavān (Sun-God) and worshipped with flowers, feelings of devotion swept your mind and you too worshipped the idols with lotus flowers. You enjoy today the fruits of that action in the past life.

2) (It is not quite definite whether Hariścandra I and II are one and the same person).

3) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 9th century A.D. The mahākāvya called "Dharmaśarmābhyudaya" is his main work. This mahākāvya comprises of 21 contos. He has composed another work called "Jīvandharacampū".

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—Son of Triśanku and Satyaratā. Concerning him there was a battle between Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra in the disguise of birds for many years. Issueless, and advised by Nārada, he prayed to Varuṇa for a son, promising to offer him in sacrifice to the deity. The son was Rohita. Varuṇa reminded him often about the promised sacrifice, and the king evaded saying that he was not yet fit for it. Knowing this Rohita left for forests and the king had a disease mahodara: when the boy returned to relieve his father, Indra prevented him from going home. Six years passed and Rohita purchased Sunaḥśepa, the second son of Ajiganta and returned home. Hariścandra proceeded to offer Sunaḥśepa in sacrifice and was relieved of his disease. Sunaḥśepa was sold as a sacrificial animal to Rohita.1 Attained permanent fame;2 a samrāṭ by performing Rājasūya3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 7. 7-27; 16. 31; Matsya-purāṇa 12. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 117-9; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 3. 25.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 72. 21.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 115; 66. 66; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 94.

1b) Sacred to Candrikā; sacred to Pitṛs;1 sacred to Śiva.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 40; 22. 52.
  • 2) Ib. 181. 28.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र) is the son of Dṛḍhāśva and grandson of Dhundhumāri, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Srāvasti was the son of Yuvanāśva and he established the city of Śravasti. Kuvalaya was born of Srāvasti and afterwards Dhundhumāri was born. Dhundhumāri had three sons Dṛḍhāśva and others. Dṛḍhāśva’s son was Hariścandra and Rohita was the son of Hariścandra.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Vaishnavism glossary
Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 9.7.7

Once Hariścandra performed a yajña for which Viśvāmitra was the priest, but Viśvāmitra, being angry at Hariścandra, took away all his possessions, claiming them as a contribution of dakṣiṇā. Vasiṣṭha, however, did not like this, and therefore a fight arose between Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra. The fighting became so severe that each of them cursed the other. One of them said, "May you become a bird," and the other said, "May you become a duck." Thus both of them became birds and continued fighting for many years because of Hariścandra.

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—The twenty-eighth king in the Tretā-yuga. He appeared in the dynasty of the sun as the son of Triśaṅku, and he is celebrated in the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa as the pious king who satisfied Viśvāmitra Muni by sacrificing his kingdom, wife, and son.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Shaivism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Hariścandra) is named Hara. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

2) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र) is the disciple of Kāla: a teacher to whom the Kāpālika doctrine was revelead, mentioned in the Śābaratantra. The Śābara-tantra is an early tantra of the Kāpālika sect containing important information about the evolution of the Nātha sect. It also lists the twelve original Kāpālika teachers and their disciples (eg., Hariścandra). Several of these names appear in the Nātha lists of eighty-four Siddhas and nine Nāthas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र) is the son of Kurumatī and king Kurucandra: ancestor of king Mahābala (i.e., previous incarnation of Ṛṣabha), as mentioned in chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Svayambuddha said to king Mahābala:—

“In your family there were formerly a king, Kurucandra, his wife, Kurumatī, and his son, Hariścandra. The king was a Kaula with great enterprises that caused injury and great possessions,. foremost in ignoble acts, pitiless like Kṛtānta. Even though wicked and cruel, he enjoyed the kingdom for a long time”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Hariścandra, son of Devapāla, is the name of a person mentioned in a Jain inscription found at Shergarh.  The next stanza (verse 5) mentions Devapāla’s son Ilhuka, as well as Goṣṭhin, Vīsala, Lalluka, Māuka and Hariścandra, and also Allaka, son of Gāgā, all of whom may have been associated with the installation of the Jinas.

The inscription (mentioning Hariścandra) was found found on the pedestal below the central figure of a group of three images of Jain Tīrthaṅkaras in a small temple outside the fort at Shergarh (ancient Kośavardhana). The three Tīrthaṅkaras represented are Śānti (Śāntinātha), Kunthu or Kunthanātha and Ara (Aranātha).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hariścandra (हरिश्चंद्र).—m (S) The proper name of a king who, in reward of his piety and liberality, was raised, together with his city and subjects, to Swarg.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—Name of a king of the solar dynasty. [He was the son of Triśaṅku and was famous for his liberality, probity, and unflinching adherence to truth. On one occasion his family-priest Vasiṣṭha commended his qualities in the presence of Viśvāmitra, who refused to believe them. A quarrel thereupon ensued, and it was at last decided that Viśvāmitra should himself test the king. The sage accordingly subjected him to the most crucial test with a view to see if he could not be but once made to swerve from his plighted word. The king, however, stood the test with exemplary courage, adhering to his word though he had to forego the kingdom, to sell off his wife and son, and at last, even his own self to a low-caste man, and-as the last test, as it were, of his truthfulness and courage--to be even ready to put his own wife to death as a witch! Viśāmitra thereupon acknowledged himself vanquished, and the worthy king was elevated along with his subjects to heaven.]

Derivable forms: hariścandraḥ (हरिश्चन्द्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—m.

(-ndraḥ) A sovereign, the twenty-eighth of the solar dynasty in the second age, celebrated for his piety and liberality, and who on those accounts was elevated, together with his subjects, to heaven: having been insidiously induced by Narada, to relate his actions with unbecoming pride, he descended from Swarga, a stage at each sentence, trll stopping in time, and doing homage to the gods, he was fixed with his capital in mid-air. E. hari Vishnu, candra the moon.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—[hari-ścand + ra] (see cand), m. The name of a king.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र).—[adjective] having a golden-coloured splendour; [masculine] [Name] of [several] kings.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—on Śṛṅgārarasa. Often quoted by Tārācaraṇa in Śṛṅgāraratnākara.

2) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र):—Purudevacampū. Probably Jain.

3) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र):—Dharmasaṃgraha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र):—[=hari-ścandra] [from hari] mfn. (See candra) having golden splendour, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of the 28th king of the solar dynasty in the Tretā age (he was son of Tri-śaṅku, and was celebrated for his piety; [according to] to the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa he gave up his country, his wife and his son, and finally himself, to satisfy the demands of Viśvāmitra; after enduring incredible sufferings, he won the pity of the gods and was raised with his subjects to heaven : [according to] to [Mahābhārata ii, 489 etc.], his performance of the Rāja-sūya sacrifice was the cause of his elevation, and in the Aitareya-Brāhmaṇa quite another legend is told about him See under śunaḥśepa, p. 1082, col. 3 : in later legends Hari-ścandra is represented as insidiously induced by Nārada to relate his actions with unbecoming pride, whereupon he was degraded from Svarga, one stage at each sentence, till stopping in time and doing homage to the gods he was fixed with his capital in mid-air ; his aerial city is popularly believed to be still visible in the skies at particular times; cf. saubha), [Brāhmaṇa; Maitrī-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] Name of various authors etc., [Inscriptions; Catalogue(s)]

4) [v.s. ...] mn. (?) Name of a place, [Catalogue(s)]

5) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a Liṅga, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hariścandra (हरिश्चन्द्र):—[hari-ścandra] (ndraḥ) 1. m. A liberal sovereign, the 28th of the solar dynasty in the 2d age, who is supposed with his city to be fixed in mid air.

[Sanskrit to German]

Harishcandra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Harishcandra in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Hariścaṃdra (ಹರಿಶ್ಚಂದ್ರ):—[adjective] having lustre resembling that of gold.

--- OR ---

Hariścaṃdra (ಹರಿಶ್ಚಂದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] name of a king known for his truthfulness.

2) [noun] (fig.) a truthful man.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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