Gopa, Gopā, Go-pa: 24 definitions


Gopa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Gopa (गोप) refers to “cowherds” (while Gopā refers to cowherdesses), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.25. Accordingly as Rāma narrated to Satī:—“[...] after conferring thus unlimited prosperity on Viṣṇu, Śiva, the consort of Śivā, freely sported about at Kailāsa along with His attendants. Thenceforth lord of Lakṣmī assumed the guise of a cowherd. The lord of cowherds (gopa), cowherdesses (gopā) and the cows (go) wandered there with pleasure. [...]’”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Gopa (गोप).—A Tuṣita god.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 9.

1b) Connected with Devas, lived in Vraja;1 their joy at the birth of Kṛṣṇa.2 Vanacaras with no settled home; left Bṛhadvana for Brindāvana in view of certain ominous portents. They travelled in bullock carts accompanied by music of tūrya. A residential construction was put up by arranging their carts in a semi-circle.3 Their concern at Kṛṣṇa being caught by Kālīya, and their joy at his escape.4 Pleased at Pralamba's (s.v.) death.5 While Arjuna was guarding Kṛṣṇa's wives after his decease, the Gopas overpowered him.6 Supplied butter and ghee to Kaṃsā.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 1. 62; 2-7.
  • 2) Ib. 5. 14.
  • 3) Ib. 11. 30-36; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 7. 18; 10. 26, 33.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 17. 14.
  • 5) Ib. 18. 30.
  • 6) Ib. I. 15. 20-21.
  • 7) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 15-22.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Gopa (गोप) refers to:—A cowherd, either child or adult. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Gopa (गोप) refers to:—A cowherd boy or man; one who protects the cows; one who serves Kṛṣṇa in the mood of intimate friendship. Gopa may also refer to the senior gopas headed by Nanda Mahārāja, who serve Kṛṣṇa in the mood of parental affection. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Gopa (गोप) refers to “shepherds”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If the sun and moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Aries (Meṣa), the Pāñcālas, the Kaliṅgas, the Sūrasenas, the people of Kāmboja, of Odra, of Kirāta, soldiers and persons who live by fire will be afflicted with miseries. If the sun or moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Taurus (Vṛṣabha), shepherds [i.e., gopa], cows, their owners and eminent men will suffer miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Gopa (गोप) refers to a “herdsman”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Not knowing the highest reality, which is situated within himself, the confused man goes astray [looking for it] in the scriptures, [just as] the foolish herdsman (gopa) looks in a well while the [missing] goat is [being held] under his armpit. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Gopa (गोप) or Śophamaṇḍalī refers to one of the sixteen varieties of Maṇḍalī snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kāśyapa sources his antidotes from a multitude plants, a few minerals, salts and animal products available in nature. All these plants fall under various groups called gaṇas, as pronounced by the Ayurvedic Nigaṇṭus.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Gopā (गोपा) or Gopiya is one of the two wifes of the Buddha according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “the Bodhisattva Śākyamuni had two wives: the first was called K’iu p’i ye (Gopiya or Gopā), the second Ye chou t’o lo (Yaśodharā) or Ye chou t’o lo heou lo mou (Yaśodharā Rāhulamātā). Gopā, being sterile (bandhya), had no children. Yaśodharā knew she was pregnant (garbhiṇī) the same night that the Bodhisattva left home (pravrajita). After his departure, the Bodhisattva practiced asceticism (duṣkaracaryā) for six years; Yaśodharā was pregnant also for six years without giving birth”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Gopa.—(EI 24), a watchman. (HD), officer in charge of the royal cattle; officer over five or ten villages according to the Arthaśāstra, II. 35. (HRS), according to the Arthaśāstra, (1) officer in charge of five or ten villages with revenue and police functions; (2) officer in charge of ten, twenty or forty families in the city; similar to the Paṭel, or Paṭvārī (H. Rev. Syst., pp. 146-47). Note: gopa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Gopa in India is the name of a plant defined with Allium sativum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Porrum ophioscorodon (Link) Rchb. (among others).

2) Gopa is also identified with Ichnocarpus frutescens It has the synonym Quirivelia zeylanica Poir. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· The Flora of Tripura State. (1981)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)
· Obs. Pl. Nov. (1871)
· Flora van Nederlandsch Indië (1857)
· Notizbl. Bot. Gart. BerlinDahlem (1931)
· Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8

If you are looking for specific details regarding Gopa, for example diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gōpa (गोप).—m (S) A caste or an individual of it. They are cowherds and milkmen. 2 An ornament for the neck or waist. It is of gold or of stoutlytwisted silk &c. 3 A kind of grass.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gōpa (गोप).—m A cowherd or milkman-caste or an individual of it. An ornament for the neck or waist.

--- OR ---

gōpa (गोप) [or gōpacindana, or गोपचिंदन].—n White clay. Fig. Des- truction, devastation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gopa (गोप).—(- f.) [gup-ac]

1) One who guards or protects; शालिगोप्यो जगुर्यशः (śāligopyo jaguryaśaḥ) R.4.2.

2) Hiding. concealment.

3) Reviling, abuse.

4) Flurry, agitation.

5) Light, lustre, splendour.

Derivable forms: gopaḥ (गोपः).

--- OR ---

Gopa (गोप).—See under गुप् (gup).

Derivable forms: gopaḥ (गोपः).

See also (synonyms): gopana.

--- OR ---

Gopa (गोप).—

1) a cowherd (considered as belonging to a mixed tribe); गोपवेशस्य विष्णोः (gopaveśasya viṣṇoḥ) Meghadūta 15.

2) the chief of a cowpen.

3) the superintendent of a village.

4) a king.

5) a protector, guardian; Ṛgveda 1.61.1. °anasī the wood of a thatch; गोपानसीषु क्षणमास्थितानाम् (gopānasīṣu kṣaṇamāsthitānām) Śiśupālavadha 3.49. °aṣṭamī the eighth day of the bright fortnight of Kārttika when Kṛṣṇa is said to have worn the dress of a cowherd. °āṭavikā a cowherd. °kanyā 1 the daughter of a cowherd.

2) a nymph of Vṛndāvana. °adhyakṣaḥ, °indraḥ, °īśaḥ the chief of herdsmen, an epithet of Kṛṣṇa. °cāpaḥ the rainbow. °dalaḥ the betel-nut tree. °bhadram the fibrous root of a water-lily. °rasaḥ gum myrrh. °rāṣṭrāḥ (pl.) Name of a people. °वधूः (vadhūḥ) f. a cowherd's wife; Bhāgavata 1.9.4. °वधूटी (vadhūṭī) a young cowherdess, a young wife of a cowherd; गोपवधूटीदुकूलचौराय (gopavadhūṭīdukūlacaurāya) Bhāṣā P.1. (-pakaḥ) 1 the superintendent of a district.

2) myrrh. (-pikā) 1 a cowherdess; Bhāgavata 1.9.14-15.

2) protectress.

- a cowherd's wife (especially applied to the cowherdesses of Vṛndāvana, the companions of Kṛṣṇa in his juvenile sports).

Derivable forms: gopaḥ (गोपः).

Gopa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms go and pa (प).

--- OR ---

Gopā (गोपा).—m. Ved.

1) a herdsman.

2) protector, or guardian; मन्द्राग्रे- त्वरी भुवनस्य गोपा (mandrāgre- tvarī bhuvanasya gopā) Av.2.1.57.

Derivable forms: gopāḥ (गोपाः).

Gopā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms go and (पा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gopa (गोप).—name of a son of Khaṇḍa (2): Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.4.3 ff.

--- OR ---

Gopā (गोपा).—(also Gopī and Gopikā, qq.v.; in Pali a Sākiya girl named Gopī or Gopikā is known, but not identified with the Bodhisattva's wife), name of a Śākya girl, who in Lalitavistara and Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra becomes the wife of the Bodhisattva (in most other texts he marries Yaśodharā, q.v.): Lalitavistara 142.8 ff. (daughter of Daṇḍapāṇi); 157.4 ff.; 194.7 ff.; 230.3 ff.; 237.19; Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 200.8; in Mahāvyutpatti 1071 Gopī or Gopā, named next to Yaśodharā, but there is no reason to assume their identification (Mironov reads Gopā without v.l.); in Gaṇḍavyūha 385.6 ff. Gopā occurs as a Śākya-kanyā, who in 420.19 is the daughter of Daṇḍapāṇi (like the Gopā of Lalitavistara), but there is here no suggestion that she married the Bodhisat- tva, tho she mentions him 419.20 (as well as Vairocana, 396.23).

--- OR ---

Gopā (गोपा) or Gopikā.—(and Gopī), wife of the Bodhisattva: °kāya (gen.) Lalitavistara 235.21 (verse); °ke (voc.) 237.13 (verse); Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iv.233.17 (but in 234.14 Yaśodharā).

--- OR ---

Gopā (गोपा) or Gopī.—q.v.: Mahāvyutpatti 1071 v.l. for Gopā (but Mironov only Gopā, no v.l.); as the Bodhisattva's wife, Gopi (voc.) Lalitavistara 235.22; 237.11 (both verses).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gopa (गोप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pā-paṃ) 1. A helper, a friend or patron. 2. A preserver, a cherisher. 3. Who or what hides or conceals. m.

(-paḥ) 1. Superintendent of a district. 2. The head of a cowpen. 3. A herdsman, a cowherd, a milkman by caste and occupation. 4. A king. 5. A Myrrh: see goparasa. f. (-pā or -pī) A plant, (Echites frutescens) f.

(-pā) A milk-woman, a female cowherd. f. (-pī) 1. A cowherd’s wife, but especially applied to those of Brindaban, the companions and objects of Krishna'S juvenile sports, and who are considered sometimes as holy or celestial personages. 2. A protectress. 3. Nature, elementary nature. E. go the earth &c. and pa what preserves; also in some sense gup to hide, to protect, &c. affix ka, fem. affix ṭāp or ṅīṣ, gāṃ bhūmiṃ vā pāti rakṣati pā-ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gopa (गोप).—[go-pa] (vb. 2. ), I. m. 1. A cowherd, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 231. 2. A preserver, Mahābhārata 13, 1375. 3. A name of Kṛṣṇa, Mahābhārata 12, 1438. Ii. f. , A cowherd’s wife, [Hitopadeśa] 64, 7; a milk-maid, [Gītagovinda. ed. Lassen.] 2, 21.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gopa (गोप).—[masculine] cow-keeper, cowherd ([feminine] ī), keeper or guardian i.[grammar], [Epithet] of Kṛṣṇa.

--- OR ---

Gopā (गोपा).—[masculine] cowherd, guardian, protector; [feminine] the wife of a cowherd etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gopa (गोप):—[=go-pa] [from go] a etc. See sub voce

2) Gopā (गोपा):—[=go-pā] [from go] a m. ([nominative case] ās [accusative] ām [dual number] ā or au [plural] [nominative case] ās [instrumental case] ābhis) a herdsman, guardian, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa iii; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad]

3) [v.s. ...] f. (ās) a female guardian, [Atharva-veda xii, 1, 57; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa iii] (cf. gopa sub voce, a-, deva-, vāyu-, saha-, soma-, su-gopā)

4) Gopa (गोप):—[=go-pa] b m. (= -pā sub voce go) a cowherd, herdsman, milkman (considered as a man of mixed caste, [Parāśara-smṛti]), [Manu-smṛti viii; Mahābhārata] (ifc. f(ā). , [i, 3213]), [Harivaṃśa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a protector, guardian, [Ṛg-veda x, 61, 10; Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] the superintendent of several villages, head of a district, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a king, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] ‘chief herdsman’, Kṛṣṇa, [Mahābhārata ii, 1438]

9) [v.s. ...] a particular class of plants, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa xii, 8, 21]

10) [v.s. ...] = -rasa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a Gandharva (cf. go-pati), [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 91, 44]

12) [v.s. ...] of a, [Buddhist literature] Arhat, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) Gopā (गोपा):—[=go-pā] [from go-pa] b f. Name of one of the wives of Śākya-muni, [Lalita-vistara xii etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] cf. gaupeya

15) [v.s. ...] Ichnocarpus frutescens, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gopa (गोप):—[go-pa] (paḥ) 1. m. Superintendent of a district; a herdsman; a helper; a king. f. (pā, pī) Echites frutescens. f. pā A milkmaid. cowherd’s wife; nature.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gopa (गोप) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Gova, Govaa, Govāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gopa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Gopā (गोपा) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Goṃpā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gōpa (ಗೋಪ):—

1) [noun] Vřṣabha, the chief or best of bulls.

2) [noun] one who tends cows; a cowherd.

3) [noun] an epithet of Křṣṇa, a cowherd.

4) [noun] the chief of a cow-pen.

5) [noun] the sun (as the one having rays).

6) [noun] the moon (who is mythologically said to be the lord of stars).

7) [noun] Indra, the lord of the heaven.

8) [noun] a male sovereign or monarch, who usu. holds by life tenure, and by hereditary right, the chief authority over a country and people; a king.

9) [noun] (masc.) a government revenue official in-charge of or administrator of, a district or a group of villages.

10) [noun] Mēru, regarded as chief of mountains.

11) [noun] (myth.) Garuḍa, the chief of birds.

12) [noun] Śiva, the master of Vřṣabha.

13) [noun] Brahma, the consort of Speech-Goddess Sarasvati.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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