Gangavatarana, Gaṅgāvataraṇa, Ganga-avatarana, Gamgavatarana: 9 definitions


Gangavatarana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[«previous next»] — Gangavatarana in Natyashastra glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण).—One of the 108 karaṇas (minor dance movement) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 4. The instructions for this gaṅgāvataraṇa-karaṇa is as follows, “foot with the toes and the sole turned upwards, hands showing Tripatāka with the fingers pointing downwards and the head being Sannata.”.

A karaṇa represents a minor dance movements and combines sthāna (standing position), cārī (foot and leg movement) and nṛttahasta (hands in dancing position).

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण) [=prasarpitatala?] refers to one of the 108 kinds of Karaṇa (“coordination of precise movements of legs and hands”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, karaṇas are the coordination of precise movements of legs and hands performed in a particular posture. The Nāṭyaśāstra also gives its view point in the same spirit. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, one hundred and eight kinds of karaṇas are accepted, e.g., Gaṅgāvataraṇa.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

Discover the meaning of gangavatarana in the context of Natyashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Gangavatarana in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण) is the name of a sacred place, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.11.—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Himavat (Himālaya): “[...] You are the permanent residence of brahmins and others; you are always sanctified by Gaṅgā; you render help to others and you are the lord and king of all mountains. O king of mountains, delighted in resorting to you and controlling my senses and mind I am going to perform penance here at Gaṅgāvataraṇa. [...]”.

Note: Gaṅgāvataraṇa is a sacred place celebrated in the Matsya and Vāyu Purāṇas where the river Gaṅgā emerges from the Vindu Sarovara through visible outlets and subterranean channels.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण), or “descent of the river Gaṅgā” on the earth. This story occurs in many Purāṇic texts such as the Śivapurāṇa, the Liṅgapurāṇa, the Viṣṇupurāṇa, the Harivaṃśa and so on. As per the story related in the Viṣṇudharmottara, Gaṅgā promised Bhagīratha that she is ready to follow him to the nether worlds. Further she adds that Śiva alone can withstand her vigorous fall from the heaven. So Bhagīratha should pray to propitiate Śiva. Bhagīratha carried out austerities.

Pleased with his austerities, Śiva gives his word to Bhagīratha. But, in the meanwhile, Gaṅgā hatches a plot to push Śiva to the nether worlds with her force. Brahmā, on understanding her wicked ideas through his inner eyes, imprisoned her in the matted hair of Śiva. On hearing the repeated prayers of Bhagīratha Śiva let loose Gaṅgā by making her to run along his hair drop by drop, in different directions. In the image, water is running in two branches, one to the east and the other to the west. One of them follows Bhagīratha.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of gangavatarana in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shilpashastra (iconography)

[«previous next»] — Gangavatarana in Shilpashastra glossary
Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण) is depicted as a sculpture on the fourth pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—From the heaven the descent of Gaṅgā is depicted at the extreme right of the panel. In front of her is a pile of stones suggesting that it is the mount Kailāsa. To the right she is oozing from the heaven. Śiva catches and imprisons her in his hair. Śiva is accompanied by Pārvatī to his left and Nandin to his right. At the feet of Pārvatī is a dog. The artist has remarkably expressed the exasperation of Pārvatī, on seeing her husband carrying Gaṅgā on his head. She looks like an embodiment of karuṇa rasa “pathos.” Here she represents also the khaṇḍitā nāyikā, “whose husband is guilty of infidelity.” Therefore she is angry with him. Her dismay is very well expressed on her face in spite of the miniature size of the image.

Śiva is allowing Gaṅgā to glide along his hair in two directions. He is shown standing, posing his right hand on the hump of Nandin. He is four-handed and with his left hand he is holding his mesh of hair. Bhagīratha is engaged in severe austerities to please Śiva. To the extreme left is the running Gaṅgā.

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण) is also found as a sculpture on the northern external wall of the temple of Pāpanātha.—The whole story of Gaṅgāvataraṅa is caught in the fourth niche. Śiva is standing with his hairs spread to receive Gaṅgā waters. Gaṅgā is shown in the right hand top corner. On the same side below is Bhagīratha doing penance to bring down the sacred river Gaṅgā to the earth. The whole story which is depicted at length and breadth on the pillar 4 in the Lokeśvara temple is caught in one small niche. Just above this niche, in the top dormer window is dancing Śiva. It is damaged. The position of his feet is identical with that of the image of Naṭarāja in the first cave at Badami.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Discover the meaning of gangavatarana in the context of Shilpashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Gangavatarana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—kāvya, by Nīlakaṇṭha Dīkṣita. Burnell. 157^b. Oppert. Ii, 68.

2) Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण):—nāṭaka. Bc 182.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaṅgāvataraṇa (गङ्गावतरण):—[from gaṅgā > gaṅga] n. (gāv) ‘Ganges-descent’, Name of a poem, [Harivaṃśa 8690]

[Sanskrit to German]

Gangavatarana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of gangavatarana in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Gangavatarana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gaṃgāvataraṇa (ಗಂಗಾವತರಣ):—

1) [noun] (myth.) the coming down of divine Gaṃgā ( the Celestial stream) from heaven to the earth.

2) [noun] (dance.) a movement with feet lifted up and brought down repeatedly and head and hand (the palm of which held with the ring finger bent and thumb and others fingers held close together and pointing upward ) moved up and down in conformity with the movements of the feet.

3) [noun] (fig.) tears flowing from both the eyes.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of gangavatarana in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: