Gairika: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Gairika means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Gairik.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

1) Gairika (गैरिक) is a Sanskrit technical term corresponding to “Red Ochre”. It is commonly used in Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy) such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara or the Rasaratna-samuccaya. Gairika is an ingredient often used in various Ayurvedic recipes and Alchemical preparations.

2) Gairika (गैरिक, “hematite, red ochre”):—One of the eight uparasa (‘secondary minerals’), a group of eight minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Ochre is a natural earth pigment that is colored by varying amounts of hematite

There are two known varieties of Gairika (“hematite”):

  1. Pāsāṇagairika (copper color),
  2. Svarṇagairika (deep red color)
Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Gairika refers to “red ochre”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 6

Gairika (hematite / red ochre).—There are two varieties of Gairika:

  1. Pāsāṇagairika,
  2. Svarṇagairika.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Gairika (गैरिक) refers to the “metallic products” of the mountains (śaila) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Gairika], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Gairikā (गैरिका) refers to “red chalk (or ochre)” and is used in the treatment of snake-bites such as those caused by the Kuṭila-snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, the treatment is mentioned as follows: “A paste made out of Red chalk or Ochre (gairikā), (famed for its cooling properties) one measure of the powder of the bark of Śleṣmātaka and Śiriṣa must be used as lepa or ointment. An effusion of the roots of (Suparṇa or Sugandha) and Vega combined with ghee and milk must be given as a drink”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Gairikā (गैरिका) refers to “hematite (used as a dye) §§ 2.10, 16.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Gairika (गैरिक) refers to a “gold ore”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the eclipsed disc should appear yellow resembling the topaz in colour, the Vaiśyas will perish and there will be prosperity in the land. If the disc should appear to be burning, there will be fear from fire; if it should resemble gold ore [i.e., gairika-rūpa], there will be wars in the land. If the disc should appear black resembling the colour of the stem of dūrvā grass (Agrostis linearis) or yellow, there will be much death in the land. If of the colour of the flower pāṭali (Bignonia Suaveolenis) ‘trumpet flower’ there will be fear from lightning”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Gairika (गैरिक) refers to “red chalk”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.8-13, while describing auspicious dreams]—“[...] [It is auspicious when one dreams of] a pill, wood for cleaning the teeth, yellow pigment on a sword or sandal, sacred thread, ointment, nectar, mercury, medicinal herbs, śakti, a water jar, lotus, rosary, red arsenic or blazing objects of siddhas, which have red chalk as their ends (gairika-anta). [...]”

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gairika (गैरिक).—a. (- f.) [गिरौ भवः ठञ् (girau bhavaḥ ṭhañ)] Mountain-born.

-kaḥ, -kam Red chalk; संसर्पिभिः पयसि गैरिकरेणुरागैः (saṃsarpibhiḥ payasi gairikareṇurāgaiḥ) Śiśupālavadha 5. 39.

-kam Gold.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gairika (गैरिक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) Mountain, mountain-born or produced n.

(-kaṃ) 1. Red chalk, or as sometimes applied, red orpiment. 2. Gold. E. giri a mountain, affix ṭhak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gairika (गैरिक).—i. e. giri + ika, n. Red chalk, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 83, 12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gairika (गैरिक).—[neuter] (ā [feminine]) red chalk.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gairika (गैरिक):—[from gaira] mfn. = ra, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) [v.s. ...] n. gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] red chalk (sometimes used as a red ornament), [Mahābhārata vii, ix, xiv; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

4) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] a class of ascetics, [Śīlāṅka] (in Prākṛt geruya)

5) Gairikā (गैरिका):—[from gairika > gaira] f. red chalk, [Suśruta iv, 25, 36.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gairika (गैरिक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. Red chalk.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gairika in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Gairika in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gairika (गैरिक) [Also spelled gairik]:—(a) ochrous, russet, of the colour of red ochre.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gairika (ಗೈರಿಕ):—[adjective] mountain-born.

--- OR ---

Gairika (ಗೈರಿಕ):—

1) [noun] 'an earthy clay coloured by iron oxide, usu. yellow or reddish brown: used as a pigment in paints; ochre.'2) [noun] the color of ochre; esp., reddish yellow.

3) [noun] gold.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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