Gagana, Gagaṇa, Gāgana: 28 definitions

Introduction:

Gagana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Gagan.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Gagana (गगन, “Mica”):—Sanskrit technical term used in Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy) such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara or the Rasaratna-samuccaya. Gagana is an ingredient which can be used in combinations with Rasa (mercury) in various recipes.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Gagana (गगन):—A synonym of Mica

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Gagana (गगन) refers to the “void”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Bhagavat (Viṣṇu) said to Śaṃkara: “O Śambhu! Supreme Void [i.e., paramākāśa]! (You) whose mind is centred on the goddess! The goddess in the form of Kumārī was born on Himavat’s mountain. She gave this Liṅga which is reality and the supreme cause (of all things). And I am the authority there. I, Kumārikā, am a limb of that (Liṅga). Thus, (I) abide as the bliss of my own experience of the Void [i.e., gagana]. O Vyāsa whom do you contemplate having performed painful austerities?”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Himalayan Academy: Kamika Agama Purva Pada

Gagana (गगन) (Cf. Vyoman) refers to “ākāśa (tattva)”, according to the Kāmikāgama Pūrvabhāga chapter 4 (“Directions for the Daily Worship of Lord Śiva”) verse 74-76 [alternatively, chapter 6 verses 74-76].—Accordingly, “[...] The pṛthvītattva (earth) [pārthiva] is located in the heart; jalatattva [āpya], in the neck; agnitattva [vāhneya], at the root of uvula; vāyutattva [vāyu], at the mid-point of the two eyebrows; ākāśatattva [vyomanvyoman-sthāna], in the brahmarandhra. Or, the location of these tattvas may be contemplated in a different way. The pṛthvītattva [pṛthivī] is from the feet to the knee; the jalatattva [āpya] is from the knee to navel; the agnitattva [anala] is from the navel to the neck; the vāyutattva [vāyura] is from the neck to the top of the face. The ākāśatattva [gaganagagana-sthāna] is located above this. Such locations are told for the purpose of dhāraṇa-practice”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Gagana (गगन) refers to the “sky”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Some say that Rāhu, the asura, though his head was cut, dies not but lives in the shape of a planet having tasted of ambrosia. That he has a disc like the sun and moon and as that disc is black it is invisible when in the sky [i.e., gagana] except on the occasion of eclipses in virtue of a boon from Brahmā. Others say that he resembles a serpent in shape with his head severed from his tail; a few that he is bodiless, that he is mere darkness and that he is the son of Siṃhikā. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Gagana (गगन) refers to the “sky”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.19 (“Kāma’s destruction by Śiva”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Naradā: “[...] When the gods eulogised thus, a great flame of fire sprang up from the third eye of the infuriated Śiva. That fire originating instantaneously from the eye in the middle of His forehead blazed with flames shooting up and resembling the fire of final dissolution in refulgence. After shooting up in the sky [i.e., gagana], it fell on the ground and rolled over the earth all round. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Gagana (गगन) represents the number 0 (zero) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 0—gagana] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Gagana (गगन) is the name of a Bodhisattva mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Gagana).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Gagana (गगन) refers to the “sky”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, by the power of the Lord, the venerable Śāriputra rose from the pavilion, remained in open space while adopting the posture of placing his right knee on the ground, and then saluted the Lord with his hands put together, and addressed himself to the Lord: ‘Save for these pavilions found in the sky, O Lord, all of the great three-thousands of worlds have changed into the sky, becoming the essence of the sky (gagana-svabhāva)—what does this auspicious sign (pūrvanimitta) portend?’. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Gagana (गगन) refers to the “sky”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The meeting of beloved women is like a city in the sky (gagana-nagara-kalpa). Youth or wealth is like a mass of clouds. Relations, children and bodies, etc. are perishable as lightning. You must understand that the whole action of the cycle of rebirth is thus momentary”.

2) Gagana (गगन) refers to the “atmosphere”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “That [cosmos] is not at all produced by anyone, not at all sustained by anyone, so also not destroyed by anyone. Nevertheless, that exists by itself without support in the atmosphere (gagana). That very same one, which is without a beginning and end, is accomplished by itself and imperishable, without a Supreme Being and excessively filled with objects beginning with the self”.

Synonyms: Nabhas.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Gagana.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 52), ‘cypher’. Note: gagana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gagana : (nt.) the sky.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gagana, (nt.) the sky (with reference to sidereal motions); usually of the moon: g° majjhe puṇṇacando viya J.I, 149, 212; g° tale canda-maṇḍalaṃ J.III, 365; cando g° majjhe ṭhito J.V, 137; cando gagane viya sobhati Vism.58; g° tale candaṃ viya DhA.I, 372; g° tale puṇṇacanda “the full-moon in the expanse of the heavens” VvA.3; g° talamagga the (moon’s) course in the sky PvA.188; etc. Of the sun: suriyo ākāse antalikkhe gaganapathe gacchati Nd2 on Sn.1097. Unspecified: J.I, 57; Vism.176 (°tal-âbhimukhaṃ). (Page 239)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gagana (गगन).—n (S) The sky or heavens. gagana kāmpaṇēṃ or tharāraṇēṃ (Trembling of the heavens.) Figure used in describing a fierce or terrible person. gaganāśīṃ gāṇṭha bāndhaṇēṃ-lāvaṇēṃ To soar high, i. e. to perform exploits; to achieve prodigies and marvels. gaganāśīṃ bhāṇḍaṇēṃ To emulate the skies;--used of a tall tree, a proud man &c. gaganāśīṃ divasa bhāṇḍaṇēṃ (To resist the too early closing in of the evening-sky.) To stretch out in summer-length: also to be just beginning to decline--the day. gaganāsārakhā or gaganāēvaḍhā Much prolonged, extended, spread abroad--the day, affairs, an establishment &c. Pr. gaganāsārakhī maitrī tiḷābarābara nātēṃ (barōbara hōta nāhīṃ). gaganīṃ divā lāvaṇēṃ To become very celebrated or public.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gagana (गगन).—n The sky or heavens. gaganāśī gāṭha bāndhaṇēṃ To perform exploits. gaganāśī bhāṇḍaṇēṃ To emulate the skies. gaganīṃ divā lāvaṇēṃ To become very celebrated.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gagana (गगन) or Gagaṇa (गगण).—(Some suppose gagaṇa to be an incorrect form, as is observed by a writer :-phālgune gagane phene ṇatvamicchanti barbarāḥ)

1) The sky, atmosphere; अवोचदेनं गगन- स्पृशा रघुः स्वरेण (avocadenaṃ gagana- spṛśā raghuḥ svareṇa) R.3.43; गगनमिव नष्टतारम् (gaganamiva naṣṭatāram) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.6; सोऽयं सोमः पतति गगनात् (so'yaṃ somaḥ patati gaganāt) Ś.4. (v. l.); Śiśupālavadha 9.27.

2) (In math.) A cypher.

3) Firmament.

4) Heaven.

Derivable forms: gaganam (गगनम्), gagaṇam (गगणम्).

--- OR ---

Gāgana (गागन).—A kind of horse; ये लङ्घयन्तः परिखामपारां ते गागनाः पुण्यतमाः प्रदिष्टाः (ye laṅghayantaḥ parikhāmapārāṃ te gāganāḥ puṇyatamāḥ pradiṣṭāḥ) Śalihotra, Appendix II,161.

Derivable forms: gāganaḥ (गागनः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gagaṇa (गगण).—(°-), see also Gagana- (as in Sanskrit there is much variation, but °na seems commoner).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gagaṇa (गगण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) Sky, atmosphere, heaven. E. gam to go. Unadi affix yuc and the radical final changed to ga; the word and its derivatives are also sometimes read gagana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gagaṇa (गगण).—and gagana gagana, n. The sky.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gagaṇa (गगण).—[neuter] sky, heaven, air.

--- OR ---

Gagana (गगन).—[neuter] sky, heaven, air.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gagaṇa (गगण):—for gagana q.v.

2) Gagana (गगन):—n. the atmosphere, sky, firmament, [Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Raghuvaṃśa; Nārāyaṇa-upaniṣad] etc.

3) talc, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gagaṇa (गगण):—(ṇaṃ) 1. n. Sky, atmosphere.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gagana (गगन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Gagaṇa, Gayaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gagana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gagana (गगन) [Also spelled gagan]:—(nm) the sky, firmament; ~[cara] sky-going; moving in the sky, a bird; ~[cuṃbī/sparśī] sky-high, skyscraping.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Gagaṇa (गगण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Gagana.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gagana (ಗಗನ):—

1) [noun] the expanse of the heavens that forms an apparent blue arch over the earth; firmament; the sky; the upper atmosphere, esp. with reference to its appearance.

2) [noun] the numeral 0 or its symbol; the cipher, zero.

3) [noun] (pros.) a metrical foot with two long syllables followed by a single one (—u).

4) [noun] ಗಗನದರಳು [gaganadaralu] gaganadaraḷu = ಗಗನಕುಸುಮ - [gaganakusuma -]2; ಗಗನಕ್ಕೇರು [gaganakkeru] gaganakkēru (esp. price of something) to rise above the usual or ordinary level; to become very dear; to soar.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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