Wisdom Library Logo

Gaṇa, aka: Gāna, Gana; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Gaṇa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. Check out some of the following descriptions and leave a comment if you want to add your own contribution to this article.

In Hinduism

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Gāna (गान) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to “song”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Gāna (गान, “popular music”).—That which has been written by the composers (vāggeyakāra), which has special musical characteristics (lakṣaṇa) and is based on regional melodic forms (deśīrāga), etc., all this is popular music (gāna), which pleases the people. Traditionally, the two kinds of popular music (gāna) are:

  1. improvised (anibaddha, lit. “not composed”),
  2. composed (nibaddha).

Improvised music is musical variation (ālapti, from ālap, “to expatiate”). Composed music is formed with phrasal elements (aṅga) such as words, etc., that are present in the main sections (dhātu), viz.: regular words (pada), words of praise (viruda), musical metre (tāla), tone syllables (svara), drum syllables (pāṭa) and invocatory syllables (tenaka). (cf. Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 13.1)

Source: Google Books: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music

about this context:

Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

Kathā (narrative stories)

Gaṇa (गण) is a Sanskrit name referring to a group of deities, attending Maheśvara at his dwelling place, which is the mountain-peak Kailāsa (located within Himavat), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 1. Accordingly, “There (Kailāsa) dwells Maheśvara the beloved of Pārvatī, the chief of things animate and inanimate, attended upon by Gaṇas, Vidyādharas and Siddhas.”

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’) is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta’s quest to become the emperor of the Vidhyādharas. The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

about this context:

Kathās (कथा) are special kind of Sanskrit literature: they are a kind of a mix between Itihāsa (historical legends) and Mahākāvya (epic poetry). Some Kathās reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of the historical deeds of the Gods, sages and heroes.

Purāṇa

1a) Gaṇa (गण).—Of bhūtas; followers of Śiva, of gods, of Pramathas; attacked Kṛṣṇa at Śoṇitapura;1 eleven celestial gaṇas reckoned.2 Twelve groups of seven living with the sun in different parts of the year; their functions.3 Three clans of sages with twenty branches each. In the first epoch of Sāvarṇī; all of them sons of Mārīca Kaśyapa, with Bali as their Indra.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 13: X. [65 (V) 46], [49]: [66. (V) 49]: 63. 6 and 10: XII. 10. 14.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 44-5: 52. 21.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 24-35.
  • 4) Ib. 100. 13f.

1b) Five groups of; Yavanas, Pāradas, Kāmbojas, Pahlavas and Śakas; defeated by Sagara, these appealed to Vaisiṣṭha who persuaded the king from further slaughter. Sagara changed their dharma and physical features; were degraded Kṣatriyas and debarred from learning Vedas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 127.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

about this context:

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Āyurveda (science of life)

Gaṇa (गण, “group”):—Suśruta, in his Suśrutasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna XXXVIII, classifies medicinal plants under thirty-seven groups, called Gaṇas. It is a Sanskrit technical term used in Āyurvedic literature.

The thirty-seven groups are:

  1. Vidārigandhādi,
  2. Āragvadhādi,
  3. Varuṇādi,
  4. Vīratarvādi,
  5. Sālasārādi,
  6. Rodhrādi,
  7. Arkādi,
  8. Surasādi,
  9. Muṣkakādi,
  10. Pippalyādi,
  11. Elādi,
  12. Vacādi,
  13. Haridrādi,
  14. Śyāmādi,
  15. Bṛhatyādi,
  16. Kākolyādi,
  17. Ūṣakādi,
  18. Sārivādi,
  19. Añjanādi,
  20. Parūṣakādi,
  21. Priyaṅgvādi,
  22. Ambaṣṭhādi,
  23. Nyagrodhādi,
  24. Guḍūcyādi,
  25. Utpalādi,
  26. Mustadi,
  27. Triphalā,
  28. Trikaṭu,
  29. Āmalakyādi,
  30. Trapvādi,
  31. Lākṣādi,
  32. Laghupañcamūla,
  33. Bṛhatpañcamūla,
  34. Daśamūla,
  35. Vallīpañcamūla,
  36. Kaṇṭakapañcamūla,
  37. Tṛṇapañcamūla,

They are classified according to its various characteristics. Most of the groups end with the prefix ādi, translating to “first” and usually refers to the first plant from the group.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

about this context:

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

In Buddhism

Pali

Gaṇa, (Vedic gaṇa; *ger to comprise, hold, or come together, cp. Gr. a)gεiρw to collect, a)gorά meeting, Lat. grex, flock, Sk. jarante “conveniunt” (see Wackernagel, Altind. Gr. I.193). Another form of this root is grem in Sk. grāma, Lat. gremium; see under gāma)—1. (a) in special sense: a meeting or a chapter of (two or three) bhikkhus, a company (opposed both to saṅgha, the order & puggala, the individual) Vin.I, 58, 74, 195, 197; II, 170, 171; IV, 130, 216, 226, 231, 283, 310, 316, 317; V, 123, 167.—(b) in general: a crowd, a multitude, a great many. See cpds.—2. as —°: a collection of, viz., of gods, men, animals or things; a multitude, mass; flock, herd; host, group, cluster.—(a) deva° J.I, 203; DhA.III, 441; PvA.140 (°parivuta); pisāca° S.I, 33; tidasa° Sn.679.—(b) amacca° suite of ministers J.I, 264; ariya° troup of worthies J.VI, 50; naranarī° crowds of men & women Miln.2; dāsi° a crowd of servants J.II, 127; tāpasa° a group of ascetics J.I, 140 (°parivuta); bhikkhu° J.I, 212 (°parivuta).—(c) dvija° J.I, 152; dija° Pv.II, 124; sakuṇa°, of birds J.I, 207; II, 352; go°, of cows A.I, 229; V, 347, 359; J.II, 128; kākola°, of ravens Sn.675; bhamarā°, of bees J.I, 52; miga° of beasts J.I, 150.—(d) taru° a cluster of trees PvA.154; tāra°, a host of stars A.I, 215; Pv.II, 967; with ref. to the books of the Canon: Suttantika° & Ābhidhammika° Vism.93.

—âcariya “a teacher of a crowd, ” i.e. a t. who has (many) followers. Always in phrase saṅghī ca gaṇī ca ganācariyo ca, and always with ref. either to Gotama: D.I, 116; M.II, 3; or to the 6 chief sectarian leaders, as Pūraṇa Kassapa, etc.: D.I, 47, 163; S.I, 68; IV, 398; M.I, 198, 227, 233; II, 2; Sn.p. 91; cp. DA.I, 143. In general: Miln.4. —ārāma (adj.) & —ārāmatā in phrase gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇārāmataṃ anuyutto: a lover of the crowd A.III, 422 sq.; M.III, 110=Nd2 on Sn.54. —gaṇin the leader of many, Ep. of Bhagavā Nd2 307. —(ṃ)gaṇupāhanā (pl.) shoes with many linings Vin.I, 185, 187; cp. Vin. Texts II.14. See also Bdhgh. on aṭaliyo (q. v. under aṭala). —pūraka (adj.) one who completes the quorum (of a bhikkhus chapter) Vin.I, 143 sq.; —bandhana in °ena dānaṃ datvā to give by co-operation, to give jointly DhA.II, 160; —bhojana food prepared as a joint meal Vin.II, 196; IV, 71; V, 128, 135, 205; —magga in °ena gaṇetuṃ to count by way of batches Vin.I, 117; —vassika (adj.) through a great many years Sn.279; —saṅganika (adj.) coming into contact with one another DhA.I, 162. (Page 240)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

gaṇa : (m.) a gang; crowd; sect; a chapter of monks. || ñāṇa (nt.), wisdom; insight.

-- or --

gāna : (nt.) singing; a song.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

about this context:

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Gaṇa (गण).—One of the ten types of ‘nursing services’ (vaiyāvrata)? What is meant by ‘the congregation of aged ascetics’ (gaṇa)? The group of senior and aged ascetics is called the congregation of aged ascetics.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Influx of karmas

Relevant definitions

Search found 350 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Yakshagana
Yakṣagāna (यक्षगान).—In South Kanara the term ”Yakṣagāna“ refers both to a style of singing and...
Kiratatiktadigana
Kirātatiktādigaṇa (किराततिक्तादिगण):—The Sanskrit name for a group of plants mentioned...
Brihatyadigana
Bṛhatyādigaṇa (बृहत्यादिगण):—The Sanskrit name for a group of ten plants mentioned as ...
Pishacanagana
Piśācānāgaṇa (पिशाचानागण).—Sixteen in number; Brahmā took pity on them and granted them a...
Sauragaṇa
Sauragaṇa (सौरगण).—A group of seven in relation to Sūrya, changing every month. While the...
Apsarasagaṇa
Apsarasagaṇa (अप्सरसगण).—Fourteen in number, the mindborn daughters of Brahmā, daughters ...
Katukagana
Kaṭukagaṇa (कटुकगण).—Articles of, detailed.** Matsya-purāṇa 217. 62-7.
Ganatirtha
Gaṇatīrtha (गणतीर्थ).—Sacred to Pitṛs.** Matsya-purāṇa 22. 73.
Tiktagana
Tīktagaṇa (तीक्तगण).—Articles of, detailed.** Matsya-purāṇa 217. 68-74.
Bhima
Bhīma (भीम) is the name of class of rākṣasas according to both the Digambara and the Śvetāmbara...
Nandi
Nandī (नन्दी) is the name of a gaṇa (attendant of Śiva), mentioned in the Skandapurāṇa 4.2.53. ...
Shuka
Śuka (शुक).—Name of a settlement (janapada) situated near the seven great mountains on...
Tara
Tāra (तार, “high”).—Illustration of tāra-grāma (highest group of tones) according to 15th centu...
Deva
Deva (देव).—Description of a women of goddes (deva) type;—A woman who has delicate limbs, stead...
Ganesha
1a) Gaṇeśa (गणेश).—Is Vināyaka (s.v.); sprung out of Kāmeśvara, thought of by Lalītā; des...

Relevant text

Search found 137 books containing Gaṇa, Gāna or Gana. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the 20 most relevant articles:

- Was this explanation helpufll? Leave a comment:

Make this page a better place for research and define the term yourself in your own words.

You have to be a member in order to post comments. Click here to login or click here to become a member.