Dura, Dūra: 24 definitions


Dura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Dūra (far): slightly raised. Usage: things at a distance.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Dūra (दूर) refers to “(having passed) far beyond”, according to the Halāyudhastotra verse 34-35.—Accordingly, “The visitation of the wives of the distinguished sages in the Pine Park, the oblation with seed in Fire, the twilight dance: Your behaviour is not reprehensible. O Three-eyed one! The doctrines of the world do not touch those who have left worldly life, having passed far beyond (dūraullaṅghya dūraṃ) the path of those whose minds are afflicted by false knowledge. The gods all wear gold and jewels as an ornament on their body. You do not even wear gold the size of a berry on your ear or on your hand. The one whose natural beauty, surpassing the path [of the world], flashes on his own body, has no regard for the extraneous ornaments of ordinary men”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Dūra (दूर) refers to the “distance” (of building), according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [while describing the construction of residence for initiates]—“[...] The residence for the initiates should be built not too far (nāti-dūra) from water. Initiates should live in a fine, unpolluted place. The residence should have one, two, or three rooms. Or a four-roomed residence should be built, according to funding. A pleasing hiraṇyanābha or sukṣetra may be built”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Dūra (दूर) refers to a “great distance (of the piercing of Śāmbhava)”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “Such is the Śāmbhava piercing, beyond thought, one should know it for oneself. It has been explained through the venerable Process of Absorption. By recollecting the Buddhist and other Siddhas the piercing which is devoid of thought constructs and directly perceptible arises in order (to realise) the reality beyond the senses. The entire knowledge (attained by means of this) piercing is the Speech (that arises) by recollecting the union of the causes. The Śāmbhava piercing takes place in this way both at a great distance (dūra) and nearby”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Dūra (दूर) refers to a “distant (call)” (picked up by hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the black-eyed division of hawks]: “[...] Like servants they become serviceable if their expectations are raised, and if they are rewarded according to their deserts. This class is quick to hear a distant call (dūra-āhvāna), to fall on distant prey (dūra-pāta) and capture big’ quarry. The second class will now be treated of. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Dura (दुर) refers to “(that which is) difficult (to understand)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Then again, the Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja uttered these verses to that Bodhisattva, the great being Guṇarājaprabhāsa: ‘(28) [...] The religious discourses (dharmakathā), which are profound (gambhīra) and difficult to understand (dura-vagāha), difficult to see (durdṛśa) for disciples, isolated Buddhas and other beings, but which inspires every living being, I ask the Sugata for them. [...]’”.

2) dūra (दूर) (Cf. Sudūra) refers to “(being) (very) far away”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, “[...] At that time, sixty koṭis of Bodhisattvas, having stood up from the congregation, joined their palms, paid homage to the Lord, and then uttered these verses in one voice: ‘[...] (221) Even though we are very far away (sudūra), we will go to quench the desire for the dharma. Having obtained pleasure and joy of the dharma, we will work for the benefit of living beings. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Dura in India is the name of a plant defined with Ficus palmata in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Ficus pseudocarica Miq..

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica (1775)
· Wild Fruits of the Sub-Himalayan Region.

If you are looking for specific details regarding Dura, for example extract dosage, chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dūra : (adj.) distant; far. (nt.), distance.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dūra, (adj.) (Sk. dūra, Ved. duva (stirring, urging on), compar. davīyān, Av. dūrō (far), *dāu; cp. Ohg. zawen, Goth. taujan=E. do. Another form is *deǔā, far in respect to time, as in Gr. dήn, dhrόn, Lat. dū-dum (cp. dū-rare=en-dure). See also dutiya & dūta) far, distant, remote, opp. āsanna (J.II, 154) or santika (Dhs.677; Vism.402).—PvA.117. Often in cpds. (see below), also as dūri°, e.g. dūri-bhāva distance Vism.71, 377; DhsA.76.—Cases mostly used adverbially, viz. Acc. dūraṃ far J.II, 154; DhA.I, 192.—Abl. dūrato from afar, aloof Vin.I, 15; II, 195; S.I, 212; Sn.511; Dh.219; J.V, 78 (dūra-dūrato); Miln.23; PvA.107. dūrato karoti to keep aloof from PvA.17.-Loc. dūre at a distance, also as prep. away from, far from (c. Abl.), e.g. Sn.468; J.II, 155, 449 (=ārā); III, 189.—Sn.772; Dh.304; J.VI, 364; Dhs.677.—dūre-pātin one who shoots far (cp. Sk. dūra-pātin) A.I, 284; II, 170, 202. J.IV, 494. See also akkhaṇavedhin.—atidūre too far Vin.II, 215.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ḍurā (डुरा).—m R A pool; a pit or hole filled with water or dug for water.

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durā (दुरा).—a R Double, twice in quantity or number. 2 Doubled over, folded.

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dūra (दूर).—a (S) Distant or remote (in time, space, relation, connection). 2 fig. Improbable. dūra karaṇēṃ To remove (from office or service): also to remove (distresses or troubles). dūra dharaṇēṃ or pāhaṇēṃ To hold at a distance; to become cold towards.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dura (दुर).—ind A depreciative particle and prefix employing inferiority, badness, grievousness, difficulty &c.

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dūra (दूर).—a Distant or remote. Improbable. dūra karaṇēṃ To remove (from office or service). dūra dharaṇēṃ or pāhaṇēṃ To hold at a distance, to become cold towards.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dūra (दूर).—a. (Compar. davīyas, superl. daviṣṭha)

1) Distant, remote, far off, a long way off, long; किं दूरं व्यवसायिनाम् (kiṃ dūraṃ vyavasāyinām) Chāṇ.73; न योजनशतं दूरं वाह्यमानस्य तृष्णया (na yojanaśataṃ dūraṃ vāhyamānasya tṛṣṇayā) H.1.146,49.

2) Very high, up; दूरमप्युदितः सूर्यः शशाङ्क इव लक्ष्यते (dūramapyuditaḥ sūryaḥ śaśāṅka iva lakṣyate) Rām.3.16.18.

3) Excessive, very much; विचिक्षिपे शूलभृतां सलीलं स पत्रिभिर्दूरमदूरपातैः (vicikṣipe śūlabhṛtāṃ salīlaṃ sa patribhirdūramadūrapātaiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 17.53.

-ram Distance, remoteness. [N. B. Some of the oblique cases of दूर (dūra) are used adverbially as follows:-(a) दूरम् (dūram) to a distance, far away, far or distant from (with abl. or gen.); ग्रामात् (grāmāt) or ग्रामस्य दूरम् (grāmasya dūram) Sk.

2) high above.

3) deeply, far below.

4) highly, in a high degree, very much; नेत्रे दूरमनञ्जने (netre dūramanañjane) S. D.

5) entirely, completely; निमग्नां दूरमम्भसि (nimagnāṃ dūramambhasi) Kathāsaritsāgara 1.29; दूरमुद्धूतपापाः (dūramuddhūtapāpāḥ) Meghadūta 57; दूरकृ (dūrakṛ) to surpass, exceed सा तस्य कर्मनिर्वृतैर्दूरं पश्चात्कृता फलैः (sā tasya karmanirvṛtairdūraṃ paścātkṛtā phalaiḥ) R.17.18. °करण (karaṇa) a. making far or distant, removing. °गम (gama) a. going far away; दूरंगमं ज्योतिषां ज्योतिरेकम् (dūraṃgamaṃ jyotiṣāṃ jyotirekam) Vāj.34.1. (b) दूरेण (dūreṇa)

1) far, from a distant place, from afar; खलः कापठ्यदोषेण दूरेणैव विसृज्यते (khalaḥ kāpaṭhyadoṣeṇa dūreṇaiva visṛjyate) Bv.1.78.

2) by far, in a high degree; दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनञ्जय (dūreṇa hyavaraṃ karma buddhiyogāddhanañjaya) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.49; R.1.3. v.l. (c)

-dūrāt 1 from a distance, from afar; प्रक्षालनाद्धि पङ्कस्य दूरादस्पर्शनं वरम्, दूरादागतः (prakṣālanāddhi paṅkasya dūrādasparśanaṃ varam, dūrādāgataḥ) 'come from afar (regarded as comp.); नदीयमभितो (nadīyamabhito).........दूरात्परित्यज्यताम् (dūrātparityajyatām) Bhartṛhari 1.81; R.1.6.

2) in a remote degree.

3) from a remote period. (d) दूरे (dūre) far, away, in a distant place; न मे दूरे किंचित्क्षणमपि न पार्श्वे रथजवात् (na me dūre kiṃcitkṣaṇamapi na pārśve rathajavāt) Ś.1.9; भोः श्रेष्ठिन् शिरसि भयमतिदूरे तत्प्रतीकारः (bhoḥ śreṣṭhin śirasi bhayamatidūre tatpratīkāraḥ) Mu.1; Bhartṛhari 3.88. °कृ (kṛ) to discard; ऋजुतां दूरे कुरु प्रेयसि (ṛjutāṃ dūre kuru preyasi) Amaruśataka 7. °भू, ° गम् (bhū, ° gam) to be far away or gone off; Ks. °तिष्ठतु (tiṣṭhatu) let it be, never mind; दूरे तिष्ठतु तद्वृद्धिः (dūre tiṣṭhatu tadvṛddhiḥ) Kathāsaritsāgara 6.37. दूरीकृ (dūrīkṛ) means

1) to remove to a distance, remove, take away; आश्रमे दूरीकृतश्रमे (āśrame dūrīkṛtaśrame) Daśakumāracarita 5; Bv.1.122.

2) to deprive (one) of, separate; कुपिता न्यायेन दूरीकृताः (kupitā nyāyena dūrīkṛtāḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 9.4.

3) to prevent, ward off.

4) to surpass, excel, distance; दूरीकृताः खलु गुणैरुद्यानलता वनलताभिः (dūrīkṛtāḥ khalu guṇairudyānalatā vanalatābhiḥ) Ś1.17; so दूरीमू (dūrīmū) to be away or removed, be separated from, be at a distance; दूरीभूते मयि सहचरे चक्रवाकीमिवैकाम् (dūrībhūte mayi sahacare cakravākīmivaikām) Meghadūta 85.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dura (दुर).—nt. ([etymology]?), seems to mean something like worldly existence: māyopamaṃ hi duram etat, svapnasa- maṃ ca samskṛtam avīkṣyam Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 33.3 (verse; meter, Finot's No. 18, p. xiv). The only possible connection I have discovered is duraṃ-daraṃ, Deśīnāmamālā 5.46, glossed duḥkhot- tīrṇam.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dūra (दूर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Distant, remote. n. adv.

(-raṃ) Far, far off. 2. Widely. deeply. E. dura with difficulty, iṇ to go, Unadi affix rak, deriv. irr. or daip śuddhau vā kū .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dūra (दूर).—adj., f. . 1. Distant, remote, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 16, 47. 2. Long, Mahābhārata 9, 1738. Comparat. davīyaṃs, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 68; superl. daviṣṭha, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 4, 365. Acc. ºram, adv. 1. Far, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 28. 2. High, [Hitopadeśa] 27, 19. 3. Deep, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 14084. 4. In a high degree, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 190, 7. Instr. ºreṇa, adv. Far, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 80. Abl. ºrāt, adv. 1. From afar, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 186. 2. Far from (with abl.), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 151. 3. In a remote degree, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 130 ([Kullūka Schol. ed. [Mānavadharmaśāstra]]) Loc. ºre. 1. Far, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 9. 2. Far away, Mahābhārata 9, 1737. dūratare, Far from (with abl.), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 128 (129).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dura (दुर).—[masculine] opener, giver of ([genetive]).

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Dūra (दूर).—[adjective] far, distant from ([ablative] or [genetive]); [neuter] distance (in [space and time]); as [adverb] far, high above, in a high degree, very much, (also dūra °—); [with] kṛ surpass. dūreṇa far, from afar, [comparative] dūratareṇa; by far. dūrāt (from) afar, far from ([ablative]). dūre far, a long way off, [comparative] dūratare at some distance from ([ablative]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dura (दुर):—[from dur] 1. dura = dur1 only in śata- (q.v.)

2) [from dur] 2. dura m. (perhaps √dṝ) ‘one who opens or unlocks’, giver, granter (= dātṛ, [Sāyaṇa]), [Ṛg-veda i, 53, 2; vi, 35, 5.]

3) Dūra (दूर):—mf(ā)n. ([probably] [from] √1. du, but See, [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 21]; [Comparative degree] davīyas, [superlative degree] daviṣṭha, qq.vv.) distant, far, remote, long (way)

4) n. distance, remoteness (in space and time), a long way, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) Dūrā (दूरा):—[from dūra] f. ([scilicet] bhūmi) one of the 10 stages in the life of a Śrāvaka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dūra (दूर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Distant, remote.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dūra (दूर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Dūra, Dūrāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Dura (दुर) [Also spelled dur]:—(ind) stand off !; be gone !; —[dura] an utterance meant to drive off a dog.

2) Dūra (दूर) [Also spelled dur]:—(adv and a) far off, far away, away; distant; remote; ~[gāmī] far-reaching; ~[grāhī] teleceptor; ~[citra] telephoto; ~[darśaka] prescient, prudent, far-seeing; a telescope; •[yaṃtra] a telescope; ~[darśana] television; ~[darśitā] far-sightedness, prudence, sagacity; ~[darśī] far-sighted, prudent, sagacious; ~[dṛṣṭi] farsight; farsightedness; ~[bīna] a telescope; ~[bhāṣa] a telephone; ~[mudraka] a teleprinter; ~[vartī] distant, remote; ~[vīkṣaṇa] a telescope; •[yaṃtra] a telescope; ~[saṃcāra] telecommunication; ~[saṃvedya] telesthetic; ~[stha/~sthita] remote, distant, located/situated far away; outlying; —[karanā] to reject, to condemn; to ward off, to remove; —[] situated far away; remote; far-fetched; —[kī karanā] to make a remarkable utterance, to make an utterance with far-reaching implications, to make a prudent remark; —[kī kauḍī] far-fetched imagination, fantastic idea; —[kī bāta] a far cry; far-fetched remark; very subtle remark; —[kī socanā] to visualise future course of events; to be sagacious, to be prescient; —[ke ḍhola suhāvane] far fowls have fair feathers; —[kyoṃ jāiye] ! why go far, take a ready example; —[se namaskāra/salāma karanā] to give wide berth to, to avoid, to steer clear of.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Dūra (दूर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Dūra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dura (ದುರ):—[noun] an armed conflict between two countries, rival factions, etc.; a war.

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Duṟa (ದುಱ):—[noun] an armed conflict between two countries, rival factions, etc.; a war.

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Dūra (ದೂರ):—

1) [adjective] not near; distant (in space or time); far off; remote.

2) [adjective] long; lengthy.

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Dūra (ದೂರ):—

1) [noun] the fact of being far or being separated in space or time; distance; remoteness.

2) [noun] that which is distinctly separate from (another).

3) [noun] a gap, space between two objects.

4) [noun] an interval between two points in time.

5) [noun] ದೂರದ ನಂಟ [durada namta] dūrada naṇṭa a distant relative; ದೂರದ ನೆಂಟ [durada nemta] dūrada neṇṭa = ದೂರದ ನಂಟ [durada namta]; ದೂರದ ಬಳಗ [durada balaga] dūrada baḷaga = ದೂರದ ಸಂಬಂಧ [durada sambamdha]; ದೂರದ ಬೆಟ್ಟ [durada betta] dūrada beṭṭa a thing far enough not to be obtained; a non-achievable target; 2. that which looks beautiful from a distance, though not really so; ದೂರದ ಸಂಬಂಧ [durada sambamdha] dūrada sambandha distant relation; ದೂರ ಬಾರ [dura bara] dūra bāra a long distance; ದೂರ ಮಾಡು [dura madu] dūra māḍu to severe one’s relation with; to treat indifferently, unfriendly or with lack of intimacy or lenience; ದೂರವಾಗು [duravagu] dūravāgu to go away; to go to a distant place; 2. to severe one’s relation with; to become indifferent, unfriendly or hostile to; to estrange; to alienate; 3. (an evil, danger, etc.) to be warded off or prevented; ದೂರವಿಡು [duravidu] dūraviḍu to keep at a distance; to treat indifferently, unfriendly or with lack of intimacy or lenience; ದೂರವಿರಿಸು [duravirisu] dūravirisu = ದೂರವಿಡು [duravidu]; ದೂರ ಸರಿ [dura sari] dūra sari = ದೂರವಾಗು - [duravagu -] 1; ದೂರ ಸಾರು [dura saru] dūra sāru = ದೂರವಾಗು - [duravagu -] 1; ದೂರದ ಬೆಟ್ಟ ನುಣ್ಣಗೆ [durada betta nunnage] dūrada beṭṭa nuṇṇage (prov.) the other side of the field is always green; it is distance that lends enchantment to the view.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of dura in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

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