Dukkha Sutta; 2 Definition(s)

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Dukkha Sutta means something in Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Dukkha Sutta in Theravada glossary... « previous · [D] · next »

1. Dukkha Sutta - Dukkha arises from the contact of the senses and the objects proper to the senses, resulting in feeling, which, in turn, produces craving. By destroying this process dukkha is destroyed. S.ii.71; cf. S.iv.86.

2. Dukkha Sutta - All the khandhas are ill; he who realizes this destroys rebirth. S.iii.21; 196.

3. Dukkha Sutta - All the khandhas lead to suffering. S.iii.77.

4. Dukkha Sutta - The Buddha teaches suffering, the arising thereof, the cessation, and the way to such cessation. S.iii.158.

5. Dukkha Sutta - That which is suffering and of the nature of suffering must be put away. S.iv.199.

6. Dukkha Sutta - Sariputta tells Jambukhadaka of the three kinds of suffering, caused by pain, by the activities and by the changeable nature of things. S.iv.259.

7. Dukkha Sutta - A monk without faith is unconscientious, has no fear of blame, is indolent and lacking in insight, lives ill at ease in this world and will suffer in the next. A.iii.3.

8. Dukkha Sutta - If a monk has brooding on sense desires, ill will, cruelty and conjures up thoughts of these things, he will live ill at ease now and also after death. A.iii.429.

9. Dukkha Sutta - It is impossible that a monk who sees happiness in any phenomenon shall live in harmony and peace. A.iii.442.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Pali-English dictionary

Dukkha Sutta in Pali glossary... « previous · [D] · next »

Dukkha, (adj.-n.) (Sk. duḥkha fr. duḥ-ka, an adj. formation fr. prefix duḥ (see du). According to others an analogy formation after sukha, q. v.; Bdhgh (at Vism.494) expls dukkha as du+kha, where du=du1 and kha=ākāsa. See also def. at Vism.461.) A. (adj.) unpleasant, painful, causing misery (opp. sukha pleasant) Vin.I, 34; Dh.117. Lit. of vedanā (sensation) M.I, 59 (°ṃ vedanaṃ vediyamāna, see also below III, 1 e); A.II, 116=M. I.10 (sarīrikāhi vedanāhi dukkhāhi). ‹-› Fig. (fraught with pain, entailing sorrow or trouble) of kāmā D.I, 36 (=paṭipīḷan-aṭṭhena DA.I, 121); Dh.186 (=bahudukkha DhA.III, 240); of jāti M.I, 185 (cp. ariyasacca, below B I.); in combn dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā D.III, 106; Dhs.176; Nett 7, 112 sq., cp. A.II, 149 sq. ekanta° very painful, giving much pain S.II, 173; III, 69. dukkhaṃ (adv.) with difficulty, hardly J.I, 215.

B. (nt.; but pl. also dukkhā, e.g. S.I, 23; Sn.728; Dh.202, 203, 221. Spelling dukha (after sukha) at Dh.83, 203). There is no word in English covering the same ground as Dukkha does in Pali. Our modern words are too specialised, too limited, and usually too strong. Sukha & dukkha are ease and dis-ease (but we use disease in another sense); or wealth and ilth from well & ill (but we have now lost ilth); or wellbeing and ill-ness (but illness means something else in English). We are forced, therefore, in translation to use half synonyms, no one of which is exact. Dukkha is equally mental & physical. Pain is too predominantly physical, sorrow too exclusively mental, but in some connections they have to be used in default of any more exact rendering. Discomfort, suffering, ill, and trouble can occasionally be used in certain connections. Misery, distress, agony, affliction and woe are never right. They are all much too strong & are only mental (see Mrs. Rh. D. Bud. Psy. 83—86, quoting Ledi Sadaw).

I. Main Points in the Use of the Word.—The recognition of the fact of Dukkha stands out as essential in early Buddhism. In the very first discourse the four socalled Truths or Facts (see saccāni) deal chiefly with dukkha. The first of the four gives certain universally recognised cases of it, & then sums them up in short. The five groups (of physical & mental qualities which make an individual) are accompanied by ill so far as those groups are fraught with āsavas and grasping. (Pañc’upādānakkhandhā pi dukkhā; cp. S.III, 47). The second Sacca gives the cause of this dukkha (see Taṇhā). The third enjoins the removal of this taṇhā. And the fourth shows the way, or method, of doing so (see Magga). These ariyasaccāni are found in two places in the older books Vin.I, 10=S.V, 421 (with addition of soka-parideva ... etc. (see below) in some MSS). Comments on this passage, or part of it, occur S.III, 158, 159; with expln of each term (+soka) D.I, 189; III, 136, 277; M.I, 185; A.I, 107; Sn.p. 140; Nd2 under saṅkhārā; It.17 (with dukkhassa atikkama for nirodha), 104, 105; Ps.I, 37; II, 204, 147; Pug.15, 68; Vbh.328; Nett 72, 73. It is referred to as dukkha, samudaya, nirodha, magga at Vin.I, 16, 18, 19; D.III, 227; Nd2 304IIb; as āsavānaṃ khaya-ñāṇa at D.I, 83; Vin.III, 5; as sacca No. 1+paṭiccasamuppāda at A.I, 176 sq. (+soka°); in a slightly diff. version of No. 1 (leaving out appiyehi & piyehi, having soka° instead) at D.II, 305; and in the formula catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ ananubodhā etc. at D.II, 90=Vin.I, 230.

II. Characterisation in Detail.—1. A further specification of the 3rd of the Noble Truths is given in the Paṭicca-samuppāda (q.v.), which analyses the links & stages of the causal chain in their interdependence as building up (anabolic=samudaya) &, after their recognition as causes, breaking down (katabolic=nirodha) the dukkha-synthesis, & thus constitutes the Metabolism of kamma; discussed e.g. at Vin 1; D.II, 32 sq. =S.II, 2 sq.; S.II, 17, 20, 65= Nd2 680I.c; S.III, 14; M.I, 266 sq.; II, 38; A.I, 177; mentioned e.g. at A.I, 147; M.I, 192 sq., 460; It.89 (=dukkhassa antakiriyā). ‹-› 2. Dukkha as one of the 3 qualifications of the saṅkhārā (q. v.), viz. anicca, d., anattā, evanescence, ill, nonsoul: S.I, 188; II, 53 (yad aniccaṃ taṃ dukkhaṃ); III, 112 (id.) III, 67, 180, 222; IV, 28, 48, 129 sq.; 131 sq.—rūpe anicc’ânupassī (etc. with dukkh’& anatt’) S.III, 41. anicca-saññā, dukkha° etc. D.III, 243; A.III, 334, cp. IV.52 sq.—sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā etc. Nd2 under saṅkhārā.—3. Specification of Dukkha. The Niddesa gives a characteristic description of all that comes under the term dukkha. It employs one stereotyped explanation (therefore old & founded on scholastic authority) (Nd2 304I.), & one expln (304III, ) peculiar to itself & only applied to Sn.36. The latter defines & illustrates dukkha exclusively as suffering & torment incurred by a person as punishment, inflicted on him either by the king or (after death) by the guardians of purgatory (niraya-pālā; see detail under niraya, & cp. below III, 2 b).—The first expln (304I.) is similar in kind to the definition of d. as long afterwards given in the Sāṅkhya system (see Sāṅkhya-kārikā-bhāṣya of Gauḍapāda to stanza 1) & classifies the various kinds of dukkha in the foll. groups: (a) all suffering caused by the fact of being born, & being through one’s kamma tied to the consequent states of transmigration; to this is loosely attached the 3 fold division of d. as dukkha°, saṅkhāra°, vipariṇāma° (see below III, 1 c);— (b) illnesses & all bodily states of suffering (cp. ādhyātmikaṃ dukkhaṃ of Sāṅkhya k.);— (c) pain & (bodily) discomfort through outward circumstances, as extreme climates, want of food, gnat-bites etc. (cp. ādhibhautikaṃ & ādhidaivikaṃ d. of Sk.);— (d) (Mental) distress & painful states caused by the death of one’s beloved or other misfortunes to friends or personal belongings (cp. domanassa).—This list is concluded by a scholastic characterisation of these var. states as conditioned by kamma, implicitly due to the afflicted person not having found his “refuge, ” i.e. salvation from these states in the 8 fold Path (see above B I.).

III, General Application, & various views regarding dukkha.—1. As simple sensation (: pain) & related to other terms: (a) principally a vedanā, sensation, in particular belonging to the body (kāyika), or physical pain (opp. cetasika dukkha mental ill: see domanassa). Thus defined as kāyikaṃ d. at D.II, 306 (cp. the distinction between śarīraṃ & mānasaṃ dukkhaṃ in Sāṅkhya philosophy) M.I, 302; S.V, 209 (in def. of dukkhindriya); A.II, 143 (sarīrikā vedanā dukkhā); Nett 12 (duvidhaṃ d.: kāyikaṃ=dukkhaṃ; cetasikaṃ= domanassaṃ); Vism.165 (twofold), 496 (dukkhā aññaṃ na bādhakaṃ), 499 (seven divisions), 503 (kāyika); SnA 119 (sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā Sn.67=kāyikaṃ sātāsātaṃ). Bdhgh. usually paraphrases d. with vaṭṭadukkha, e.g. at SnA 44, 212, 377, 505.—(b) Thus to be understood as physical pain in combn dukkha+ domanassa “pain & grief, ” where d. can also be taken as the Gen. term & dom° as specification, e.g. in cetasikaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti A.I, 157, 216; IV, 406; S.II, 69; rāgajan d °ṃ dom °ṃ paṭisaṃvedeti A.II, 149; kāmûpasaṃhitaṃ d °ṃ dom °ṃ A.III, 207; d °ṃ dom °ṃ paṭisaṃvediyati S.IV, 343. Also as cpd. dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya A.III, 326, & freq. in formula soka-parideva-d°-domanass-upāyāsā (grief & sorrow, afflictions of pain & misery, i.e. all kinds of misery) D.I, 36 (arising fr. kāmā); M.II, 64; A.V, 216 sq.; It.89 etc. (see above B I. 4). Cp. also the combn dukkhī dummano “miserable and dejected” S.II, 282.—(c) dukkha as “feeling of pain” forms one of the three dukkhatā or painful states, viz. d.-dukkhatā (painful sensation caused by bodily pain), saṅkhāra° id. having its origin in the saṅkhārā, vipariṇāma°, being caused by change S.IV, 259; V, 56; D.III, 216; Nett 12. (d) Closely related in meaning is ahita “that which is not good or profitable, ” usually opposed to sukha & hita. It is freq. in the ster. expression “hoti dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya” for a long time it is a source of discomfort & pain A.I, 194 sq.; M.I, 332 D.III, 157; Pug.33. Also in phrases anatthāya ahitāya dukkhāya D.III, 246 & akusalaṃ ... ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattati A.I, 58.—(e) Under vedanā as sensation are grouped the 3: sukhaṃ (or sukhā ved.) pleasure (pleasant sensation), dukkhaṃ pain (painful sens.), adukkham-asukhaṃ indifference (indifferent sens.), the last of which is the ideal state of the emotional habitus to be gained by the Arahant (cp. upekhā & nibbidā). Their role is clearly indicated in the 4th jhāna: sukhassa pahānā dukkhassa pahānā pubbe va somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkham-asukhaṃ upekhā parisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati (see jhāna).—As contents of vedanā: sukhaṃ vediyati dukkhaṃ v. adukkham-asukhaṃ v. tasmā vedanā ti S.III, 86, 87; cp. S.II, 82 (vedayati). tisso vedanā: sukha, d°, adukkham-asukhā° D.III, 275; S.II, 53; IV, 114 sq., 207, 223 sq., cp. M.I, 396; A.I, 173; IV, 442; It.46, 47. yaṃ kiñc’āyaṃ purisa-puggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā d °ṃ vā a °ṃ vā sabban taṃ pubbe katahetū ti=one’s whole life-experience is caused by one’s former kamma A.I, 173=M.II, 217.—The combn (as complementary pair) of sukha+dukkha is very freq. for expressing the varying fortunes of life & personal experience as pleasure & pain, e.g. n’âlam aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā D.I, 56=S.III, 211. Thus under the 8 “fortunes of the world” (loka dhammā) with lābha (& a°), yasa (a°), pasaṃsā (nindā), sukha (dukkha) at D.III, 260; Nd2 55. Regarded as a thing to be avoided in life: puriso jīvitukāmo ... sukhakāmo dukkha-paṭikkūlo S.IV, 172, 188.—In similar contexts: D.I, 81≈; III, 51, 109, 187; S.II, 22, 39; IV, 123 sq.; A.II, 158 etc. (cp. sukha).

2. As complex state (suffering) & its valuation in the light of the Doctrine: (a) any worldly sensation, pleasure & experience may be a source of discomfort (see above, I.; cp. esp. kāma & bhava) Ps.I, 11 sq. (specified as jāti etc.); dukkhaṃ=mahabbhayaṃ S.I, 37; bhārādānaṃ dukkhaṃ loke bhāra-nikkhepanaṃ sukhaṃ (pain is the great weight) S.III, 26; kāmānaṃ adhivacanaṃ A.III, 310; IV, 289; cp. A.III, 410 sq. (with kāmā, vedanā, saññā, āsavā, kamma, dukkhaṃ).—(b) ekanta° (extreme pain) refers to the suffering of sinful beings in Niraya, & it is open to conjecture whether this is not the first & orig. meaning of dukkha; e.g. M.I, 74; A.II, 231 (vedanaṃ vediyati ekanta-d°ṃ seyyathā pi sattā nerayikā); see ekanta. In the same sense: ... upenti Roruvaṃ ghoraṃ cirarattaṃ dukkhaṃ anubhavanti S.I, 30; niraya-dukkha Sn.531; pecca d°ṃ nigacchati Sn.278, 742; anubhonti d°ṃ kaṭuka-pphalāni Pv.I, 1110 (=āpāyikaṃ d°ṃ PvA.60); PvA.67; mahādukkhaṃ anubhavati PvA.43, 68, 107 etc. atidukkhaṃ PvA.65; dukkhato pete mocetvā PvA.8.—(c) to suffer pain, to experience unpleasantness etc. is expressed in foll. terms: dukkhaṃ anubhavati (only w. ref. to Niraya, see b); anveti Dh.1 (=kāyikaṃ cetasikaṃ vipāka-dukkhaṃ anugacchati DhA.I, 24), upeti Sn.728; carati S.I, 210; nigacchati M.I, 337; Sn.278, 742; paṭisaṃvedeti M.I, 313 (see above); passati S.I, 132 (jāto dukkhāni passati: whoever is born experiences woe); vaḍḍheti S.II, 109; viharati A.I, 202; II, 95; III, 3; S.IV, 78 (passaddhiyā asati d°ṃ v. dukkhino cittaṃ na samādhiyati); vedayati, vediyati, vedeti etc. see above III, 1 e; sayati A.I, 137.—(d) More specific reference to the cause of suffering & its removal by means of enlightenment: (a) Origin (see also above I. & II. 1): dukkhe loko patiṭṭhito S.I, 40; yaṃ kiñci dukkhaṃ sambhoti sabbaṃ saṅkhāra-paccayā Sn.731; ye dukkhaṃ vaḍḍhenti te na parimuccanti jātiyā etc. S.II, 109; d°ṃ ettha bhiyyo Sn.61, 584; yo paṭhavī-dhātuṃ abhinandati dukkhaṃ so abhin° Si I.174; taṇhā d °ssa samudayo etc. Nett 23 sq.; as result of sakkāyadiṭṭhi S.IV, 147, of chanda S.I, 22 of upadhi S.II, 109, cp. upadhīnidānā pabhavanti dukkhā Sn.728; d°ṃ eva hi sambhoti d°ṃ tiṭṭhati veti ca S.I, 135.—(b) Salvation from Suffering (see above I.): kathaṃ dukkhā pamuccati Sn.170; dukkhā pamuccati S.I, 14; III, 41, 150; IV, 205; V, 451; na hi putto pati vā pi piyo d °ā pamocaye yathā saddhamma-savanaṃ dukkhā moceti pāṇinaṃ S.I, 210; na appatvā lokantaṃ dukkhā atthi pamocanaṃ A.II, 49. Kammakkhayā ... sabbaṃ d°ṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissati M.II, 217, cp. I.93. kāme pahāya ... d°ṃ na sevetha anatthasaṃhitaṃ S.I, 12=31; rūpaṃ (etc.) abhijānaṃ bhabbo d —°kkhayāya S.III, 27; IV, 89; d°ṃ pariññāya sakhettavatthuṃ Tathāgato arahati pūraḷāsaṃ Sn.473. pajahati d°ṃ Sn.789, 1056. dukkhassa samudayo ca atthaṅgamo ca S.II, 72; III, 228 sq.; IV, 86, 327. – dukkhass’antakaro hoti M.I, 48; A.III, 400 sq.; It.18; antakarā bhavāmase Sn.32; antaṃ karissanti Satthu sāsana-kārino A.II, 26; d °parikkhīṇaṃ S.II, 133; akiñcanaṃ nânupatanti dukkhā S.I, 23; saṅkhārānaṃ nirodhena n’atthi d°assa sambhavo Sn.731.—muniṃ d°assa pārayuṃ S.I, 195=Nd2 136v; antagū ‘si pāragū d°assa Sn.539. – saṅg’ātiko maccujaho nirūpadhi pahāya d°ṃ apunabbhavāya S.IV, 158; ucchinnaṃ mūlaṃ d°assa, n’atthi dāni punabbhavo Vin.I, 231= D.II, 91.

—âdhivāha bringing or entailing pain S.IV, 70; —anubhavana suffering pain or undergoing punishment (in Niraya) J.IV, 3; —antagū one who has conquered suffering Sn.401; —âbhikiṇṇa beset with pain, full of distress It.89; —âsahanatā non-endurance of ills Vism.325. —indriya the faculty of experiencing pain, painful sensation S.V, 209, 211; Dhs.556, 560; Vbh.15, 54, 71; —udraya causing or yielding pain, resulting in ill, yielding distress M.I, 415 sq.; A.I, 97; IV, 43 (+dukkhavipāka); V, 117 (dukh°), 243; J.IV, 398; of kamma: Ps.I, 80; II, 79; Pv.I, 1110 (so read for dukkhandriya, which is also found at PvA.60); DhA.II, 40 (°uddaya); —ûpadhāna causing pain Dh.291; —ûpasama the allayment of pain or alleviation of suffering, only in phrase (aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo) d-ûpasama-gāmino S.III, 86; It.106; Sn.724=Dh.191;— (m)esin wishing ill, malevolent J.IV, 26; —otiṇṇa fallen into misery S.III, 93; M.I, 460; II, 10; —kāraṇa labour or trials to be undergone as punishment DhA.III, 70 (see Dh.138, 139 & cp. dasa1 B 1 b); —khandha the aggregate of suffering, all that is called pain or affliction (see above B II. 1) S.II, 134; III, 93; M.I, 192 sq.; 200 sq.; etc.;— khaya the destruction of pain, the extinction of ill M.I, 93; II, 217 (kammakkhayā d-kkhayo); S.III, 27; Sn.732. Freq. in phrase (nīyāti or hoti) sammā-d-kkhayāya “leads to the complete extinction of ill, ” with ref. to the Buddha’s teaching or the higher wisdom, e.g. of brahmacariyā S.II, 24; of paññā D.III, 268; A.III, 152 sq.; of ariyā diṭṭhi D.III, 264=A.III, 132; of sikkhā A.II, 243; of dhamma M.I, 72; —dhamma the principle of pain, a painful object, any kind of suffering (cp. °khandha) D.III, 88; S.IV, 188 (°ānaṃ samudayañ ca atthagamañ ca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti); It.38 (nirodha °anaṃ); —nidāna a source of pain M.II, 223; Dhs.1059, 1136; —nirodha the destruction of pain, the extinction of suffering (see above B II. 1) M.I, 191; II, 10; A.III, 410, 416; etc.; —paṭikkūla averse to pain, avoiding unpleasantness, in combn sukhakāmo d-p. S.IV, 172 (spelt °kulo), 188; M.I, 341; —patta being in pain J.VI, 336; —pareta afflicted by pain or misery S.III, 93; It.89=A.I, 147; —bhummi the soil of distress Dhs.985; —vāca hurtful speech Pv.I, 32 (should probably be read duṭṭha°); —vipāka (adj.) having pain as its fruit, creating misery S.II, 128; D.III, 57, 229; A.II, 172 (kamma); Ps.II, 79 (id.); —vepakka =°vipāka Sn.537 (kamma); —saññā the consciousness of pain Nett 27; —samudaya the rise or origin of pain or suffering (opp. °nirodha; see above B II. 1) S.IV, 37; M.I, 191; II, 10; III, 267; Vbh.107 (taṇhā ca avasesā ca kilesā: ayaṃ vuccati d-s.); —samphassa contact with pain M.I, 507; Dhs.648; f. abstr. °tā Pug.33; —seyya an uncomfortable couch DhA.IV, 8. (Page 324)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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