Ditthi, Diṭṭhi, Diṭṭhī: 10 definitions


Ditthi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Google Books: The Great Chronicle of Buddhas

Diṭṭhi (दिट्ठि) refers to “wrong view” representing one of the seven anusayas (‘latent tendencies’).—The anusayas are defilements that have not been eradicated by magga-ñāṇa and are liable to arise perceptibly whenever circumstances prevail. These anusayas are of seven kinds. They are called the elements of latent tendencies.They are: (1) Kāmarāga-anusaya, the seed element of greed, (2) Bhavarāga-anusaya, the seed element of attachment to existence, (3) Paṭigha-anusaya, the seed element of hatred, (4) Māna-anusaya, the seed element of conceit, (5) Diṭṭhi-anusaya, the seed element of wrong view, (6) Vicikiccha-anusaya, the seed element of uncertainty, (7) Avijjā-anusaya, the seed element of bewilderment.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

F (Sight, vision of things, belief).

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Part of the Lobha Team.

Wrong View;

Ditthi is wrong view. It advises citta to see objects differently instead of seeing as realities. As ditthi cannot see realities, it see dhamma as men, woman, animals etc etc. This wrong view leads to more and more lobha and may switch to other akusala cittas.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

(lit. 'sight'; Ö dis, to see): view, belief, speculative opinion, insight.

If not qualified by sammā, 'right', it mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion, and only in a few instances to right view, understanding or insight (e.g. ditthi-ppatta, q.v.; ditthi-visuddhi, purification of insight; ditthi-sampanna, possessed of insight).

Wrong or evil views (ditthi or micchā-ditthi) are declared as utterly rejectable for being a source of wrong and evil aspirations and conduct, and liable at times to lead man to the deepest abysses of depravity, as it is said in A. I, 22:

"No other thing than evil views do I know, o monks, whereby to such an extent the unwholesome things not yet arisen arise, and the unwholesome things already arisen are brought to growth and fullness. No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such an extent the wholesome things not yet arisen are hindered in their arising, and the wholesome things already arisen disappear. No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such an extent human beings at the dissolution of the body, at death, are passing to a way of suffering, into a world of woe, into hell." Further in A. I, 23: "Whatever a man filled with evil views performs or undertakes, or whatever he possesses of will, aspiration, longing and tendencies, all these things lead him to an undesirable, unpleasant and disagreeable state, to woe and suffering."

From the Abhidhamma (Dhs) it may be inferred that evil views, whenever they arise, are associated with greed (s. Tab. I. 22, 23, 26, 27).

Numerous speculative opinions and theories, which at all times have influenced and still are influencing mankind, are quoted in the sutta-texts. Amongst them, however, the wrong view which everywhere, and at all times, has most misled and deluded mankind is the personality-belief, the ego-illusion. This personality-belief (sakkāya-ditthi), or ego-illusion (atta-ditthi), is of 2 kinds: eternity-belief and annihilation-belief.

Eternity-belief (sassata-ditthi) is the belief in the existence of a persisting ego-entity, soul or personality, existing independently of those physical and mental processes that constitute life and continuing even after death.

Annihilation-belief (uccheda-ditthi), on the other hand, is the belief in the existence of an ego-entity or personality as being more or less identical with those physical and mental processes, and which therefore, at the dissolution at death, will come to be annihilated. - For the 20 kinds of personality-belief, see sakkāya-ditthi.

Now, the Buddha neither teaches a personality which will continue after death, nor does he teach a personality which will be annihilated at death, but he shows us that 'personality', 'ego', 'individual', 'man', etc., are nothing but mere conventional designations (vohāra-vacana) and that in the ultimate sense (s. paramattha-sacca) there is only this self-consuming process of physical and mental phenomena which continually arise and again disappear immediately.

For further details, s. anattā, khandha, paticcasamuppāda.

"The Perfect One is free from any theory (ditthigata), for the Perfect One has seen what corporeality is, and how it arises and passes away. He has seen what feeling ... perception ... mental formations ... consciousness are, and how they arise and pass away. Therefore I say that the Perfect One has won complete deliverance through the extinction, fading away, disappearance, rejection and casting out of all imaginings and conjectures, of all inclination to the 'vain-glory of 'I' and 'mine." (M. 72).

The rejection of speculative views and theories is a prominent feature in a chapter of the Sutta-Nipāta, the Atthaka-Vagga.

The so-called 'evil views with fixed destiny' (niyata-micchāditthi) constituting the last of the 10 unwholesome courses of action (kammapatha), are the following three:

  • (1) the fatalistic 'view of the uncaused ness' of existence (ahetukaditthi),

  • (2) the view of the inefficacy of action' (akiriyaditthi),

  • (3) nihilism (natthikaditthi).


  • (1) was taught by Makkhali-Gosāla, a contemporary of the Buddha who denied every cause for the corruptness and purity of beings, and asserted that everything is minutely predestined by fate.

  • (2) was taught by Pūrana-Kassapa, another contemporary of the Buddha who denied every karmical effect of good and bad actions: "To him who kills, steals, robs, etc., nothing bad will happen. For generosity, self-restraint and truthfulness, etc. no reward is to be expected."

  • (3) was taught by Ajita-Kesakambali, a third contemporary of the Buddha who asserted that any belief in good action and its reward is a mere delusion, that after death no further life would follow, that man at death would become dissolved into the elements, etc.

For further details about these 3 views, s. D.2, M.60; commentarial exposition in WHEEL 98/99, P. 23.

Frequently mentioned are also the 10 antinomies (antagāhikā micchā-ditthi): 'Finite is the world' or 'infinite is the world' ... 'body and soul are identical' or 'body and soul are different' (e.g. M. 63).

In the Brahmājala Sutta .(D.1), 62 false views are classified and described, comprising all conceivable wrong views and speculations about man and world.

See The All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmājala Sutta), tr. with Com. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS).

Further s. D.15, D.23, M.24, D.28; M.11, M.12, M.25, M.60, M.63, M.72, M.76, M.101, M.102, M.110; A.II.16; A.X.93; S.XXI, S.XXIV; Pts.M. Ditthikathā, etc.

Wrong views (ditthi) are one of the proclivities (s. anusaya), cankers (s. āsava), clingings (s. upādāna), one of the three modes of perversions (s. vipallāsa). Unwholesome consciousness (akusala citta), rooted in greed, may be either with or without wrong views (ditthigata-sampayutta or vippayutta); s. Dhs.; Tab I.

On right view (sammā-ditthi), s. magga and M.9 (Trans. with Com. in 'R. Und.').

Source: This is Myanmar: The Doctrine of Paticcasammupada

Ditthi means 'wrong view'.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: University of Cambridge: Jainism

Diṭṭhī (दिट्ठी) in Prakrit refers to “belief” and represents one of the twenty-four Daṇḍakas (“parameters relating to the description of living beings”).—The most common list of daṇḍakas has 24 terms in Prakrit. This has been the starting point of a variety of works, among which the Caturviṃśatidaṇḍaka by Gajasāra stands as a classic.

Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I

Diṭṭhi (दिट्ठि) refers to the “belief” (of the Gods, Humans, Animals, etc.), as defined in the “Arhadvijñaptirūpā Vicāraṣaṭtriṃśikā” by Gajasāra, which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The Vicāraṣaṭtriṃśikā (in Prakrit) was first presented in tabular form (yantra) according to the commentators, and then put in the form of a text. [...] Each category is then examined through twenty-four parameters [e.g., belief (diṭṭhi)].

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

diṭṭhi : (f.) dogma; theory; belief.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Diṭṭhi, (f.) (Sk. dṛṣṭi; cp. dassana) view, belief, dogma, theory, speculation, esp. false theory, groundless or unfounded opinion.—(a) The latter is rejected by the Buddha as pāpa° (A.IV, 172) and pāpikā d. (opp. bhaddikā: A.V, 212 sq.; It.26): Vin.I, 98, 323; Dh.164; Pv IV.354; whereas the right, the true, the best doctrine is as sammā d. the first condition to be complied with by anyone entering the Path. As such the sammā d. is opposed to micchā d. wrong views or heresy (see b). Equivalent with micchā d. is kudiṭṭhi (late) Dāvs II.58.—(b) Characterized more especially as: (a) sammā diṭṭhi right doctrine, right philosophy Vin.I, 10; S.II, 17; V, 11, 14, 30 sq., 458 sq., M.I, 315; II, 12, 29, 87; III, 72; Nd2 485; Vbh.104 sq. See magga.—ujukā d. S.V, 143, 165; ujugatā d. M.I, 46 sq.—(b) micchā d. wrong theory, false doctrine S.I, 145; II, 153 (caused by avijjā); M.III, 71; Dh.167, 316; Nd2 271IIIb; Vbh.361, 389.—The foll. theories are to be considered as varieties of micchā d., viz. (in limited enumeration) akiriyavāda S.III, 208; IV, 349; aññaṃ aññena S.III, 211; antaggāhikā A.I, 154; II, 240; III, 130; antânantikā D.I, 22 sq. S.III, 214, 258 sq.; assāda° A.III, 447; ahetukavādā S.III, 210; ucchedavādā D.I, 34; S.II, 20; III, 99; 110 sq.; bhava° S.III, 93; M.I, 65; A.I, 83; sakkāya° A.III, 438; V, 144; Sn.231 (cp. KhA 188); Nd2 271IIIb (20 fold, as diṭṭhilepa); sassatavādā D.I, 13; S.II, 20; III, 98, 213 sq., 258 sq.—(c) Various theories & doctrines are mentioned & discussed at: Vin.I, 115; S.I, 133; II, 61 sq., 75 sq., 222; III, 215 sq., 258 sq.; IV, 286; V, 448 (=D.I, 31); D.III, 13 sq., 45, 246, 267; M.I, 40; A.I, 32; II, 252 sq.; III, 132, 289, 349; Th.2, 184; Ps.I, 135 sq.; Pug.22; Dhs.392, 1003 (cp. Dhs. trsl. pp. 257 sq., 293, 325); Vbh.145, 245, 341, 393 sq.; Sdhp.13, 333.—(d) Miscellaneous: 4 diṭṭhiyo at Vbh.376; also at Vism.511 (sakkāya°, uccheda°, sassata°, akiriya°); 5 Vbh.378; 6 at M.I, 8; Vbh.382; 7 at Vbh.383; 20 see under sakkāya°; 62 under diṭṭhigata.—In series diṭṭhi khanti ruci laddhi characterizing “diṭṭhadhamma” at Nd2 299 & passim. Diṭṭhiyā sutiyā ñāṇena in def. of a theory of cognition at Nd2 300 as complementing taṇhā: see taṇhā B 3. Coupled with vācā & citta in formula (taṃ) vācaṃ appahāya cittaṃ appahāya diṭṭhiṃ appaṭinissajjitvā ... (nikkhitto evaṃ niraye) at S.IV, 319= D.III, 13, 15; combined with (& opposed to) sīla (as pāpaka & bhaddaka) at It.26, 27.—diṭṭhiṃ āsevati to hold a view M.I, 323; °ṃ bhindati to give up a view J.I, 273; Dāvs II.58.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Diṭṭhi (दिट्ठि) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Dṛṣṭi.

2) Diṭṭhi (दिट्ठि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dṛṣṭi.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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