Dhuma, Dhūma, Dhūmā: 31 definitions


Dhuma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Dhoom.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Dhūma (धूम) refers to an “inhalant”, mentioned in verse 4.18-19 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Erysipelas, urticaria, leprosy itching of the eyes, jaundice, and fever as well as cough, dyspnea, palpitation of the heart, freckles of the face, and swellings of the skin (result) from (suppressed) vomiting. A gargle, an inhalant [viz., dhūma], a fast, after one has eaten pungent (food)—its ejection, gymnastics, a bloodletting, and a purgative (are) commended in this case”.

Source: The University of Texas at Austin: Chapter 7 of the Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna

The term dhūma “smoke” here in Chapter 7 has been rendered ‘smoking’ or ‘inhalation’ by the translations of both R.K. Sharma and Priyavrat Sharma, but the latter also offers ‘snuff’ as another alternative. In the Sūtrasthāna section of the Carakasaṃhitā (Chap. 5, śloka 26), Sharma and Bhagwan Dash employ the term ‘cigar’ to describe the procedure of dhūma, thus suggesting the use of paraphernalia to deliver the smoke.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Dhūma (धूम):—Medicated smoke.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Dhūmā (धूमा, “smoke”) refers to “she-buffalo” and represents the second of eight yoni (womb), according to the Mānasāra. Yoni is the fourth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular yoni (e.g., dhūmā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The first, third, fifth and seventh yonis are considered auspicious and therefore to be preferred, and the rest, inauspicious and to be avoided.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Dhūma (धूम) or Dhūmra refers to “smoke”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] then I began to consider proper means whereby I could see the face. Afflicted much by the cupid, I pitched upon the production of airful smoke (dhūmra) as the means thereof. I put many wet twigs into the fire. Only very little ghee did I pour into the fire. Much smoke (dhūma) arose out of the fire from the wet twigs, so much so that darkness enveloped the whole altar ground (and the neighbourhood)”

2) Dhūma (धूम) refers to the “smoke” (of the sacrificial fire), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “Then the demon Tāraka, of great strength and exploit, endowed with a lofty mind, requested permission of his mother for performing penance. [...] A hundred years he performed the penance amidst fires, a hundred years in a topsy-turvy position and a hundred years supported on the ground by the palms of his hands. O sage, a hundred years he remained with his head down and feet up clinging fast to the branch of a tree and inhaling the pure smoke [i.e., śuci-dhūma] of the sacrificial fire. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Dhūma (धूम) refers to a “smoke”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots, also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. [...] If the solar spots should be of the shape of the emblems of royalty such as chatra (umbrella), dhvaja (flag staff) and cāmara (hairy fan) and the like, the reigning prince will be dethroned and a foreign prince will begin to reign. If the spots should appear like sparks of fire, like the smoke [i.e., dhūma] and the like, his subjects will suffer”.

2) Dhūma (धूम) refers to “comets”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 13).—Accordingly, “If the Ṛṣis should be crossed by meteoric falls, thunderbolts or comets [i.e., ulkā-aśani-dhūma-ādya], or if they should appear dim or without rays or of very small disc, they will cause misery and suffering to the persons and objects they severally represent; but if they should appear big or bright there will be happiness and prosperity”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Dhūma (धूम) or Dhūmānumāna refers to the “(inference of fire from) smoke ”, according to the Nyāyamañjarī, vol. I, 326.—Accordingly, “[...] Among these [two types of inference,] who would not admit the validity of an inference such as that [of fire] from smoke (dhūma-anumāna)? So [people] apprehend what is to be established [by such an inference] even though they are not pestered by logicians. But the validity of an inference regarding such [entities] as the Self, God, an omniscient or an afterlife is not acknowledged by those who know reality”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Dhūma (धूम) refers to “(being fumigated with) smoke”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 226).—There are apparently several Tantric rites that Bāṇa pejoratively associates with the priest: he, “the ageing Draviḍa religious man” “demeans Durgā with his prayers for the boon of sovereignty over the Southern lands”; “he had copied a hymn to Durgā (durgāstotra) on a strip of cloth”, “he had collected palm-leaf manuscripts of spells, Tantras and jugglery the letters of which were written in red lac and fumigated with smoke (dhūma)” [...].

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shilpa)

Dhūma (धूम) refers to “(painting) smoke”, according to the Citrasūtra section (on painting) from the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—Accordingly, “He who is able to paint waves, flames, smoke (dhūma), flags and garments etc. with the speed of the wind is considered to be an expert”.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Dhūma (धूम) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Dhūma).

2) Dhūmā (धूमा) is also the name of a Piśācī mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Dhūma (धूम) refers to “smoke”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a frog croaks, there is danger of water in the [donor’s?] house. If smoke (dhūma) [is seen], there is distraction of mind. If a person suffering from a disease, a person of a lower [class], a person suffering from leprosy, a deranged person, and a woman are seen, then it causes disease”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Dhūma (धूम) refers to “smoke”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “[...] One thousand bindus are in the prongs, [which run] upward from the navel area. He should meditate on the bindus in the ten prongs in sequence. By smoke (dhūma) and others [dhūmādi], he should make move the 100 [bindus] in the seats of bindus. From that, however subtle the thing might be, it is not a [discriminated] object of sense for the Awakened Ones. He [becomes] completely awakened, [which is] the mahāmudrā or Great Seal, through the meditation on the adamantine vital airs [...]”.

Note: The Bohitā does not clarify what the “smoke and others” [dhūmādi] means. They perhaps indicate the steps starting with smoking to ignite the inner fire at the center of the navel area. According to the Bohitā, the “seats of bindus” signify the middle of the forehead. It is generally taught in the Buddhist tantras that there is an inner circle or Chakra in the middle of the forehead or in the head, in which nectars of immortality (amṛta) or awakening minds (bodhicitta) (equivalent to the bindus in this practice) are produced.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Dhūma (धूम, “clouded”) refers to one of the “twenty form objects” (rūpa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 34). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., dhūma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Dhūma (धूम) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Dhūma] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Dhūma (धूम) refers to “smoke (from the funeral pyre)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here [in this world], for that same man for whom the splendour of a royal inauguration is seen near daybreak, also on that day the smoke from [his] funeral pyre (citā-dhūma) is seen”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dhūma : (m.) smoke; fumes.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dhūma, (Vedic dhūma=Lat. fumus; Gr. qumόs (mood, mind), qumiάw (fumigate); Ohg. toum etc. Idg. *dhu, cp. Gr. qu/w (burn incense), qu/os (incense). See also dhunāti) smoke, fumes Vin.I, 204 (aroma of drugs); M.I, 220 (dh °ṃ kattā); A.V, 352 (id.); A.II, 53; IV, 72 sq.; V, 347 sq.; J.III, 401, 422 (tumhākaṃ dh-kāle at the time when you will end in smoke, i.e. at your cremation); DhA.I, 370 (eka° one mass of smoke); VvA.173 (for dhūpa, in gandhapuppha°); PvA.230 (micchā-vitakka° in expl. of vidhūma).

— or —

Dhuma, in °kaṭacchuka=druma° having a wooden spoon (see duma), cp. Mar. dhumārā? (Ed. in note) DhA.II, 59. (Doubtful reading.) (Page 342)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dhumā (धुमा).—m (dhūma!) The bass-end of a pakhavāja or mṛdaṅga. 2 Clamor of musical instruments; loud and lively music. v gājava. 3 (dhūma Smoke.) Discomfiture or rout (as of an army): also devastation, demolition, ravaged or ruined state gen. v kara, uḍava.

--- OR ---

dhūma (धूम).—f A run or running, a race. v māra, ṭhōka. 2 fig. Spirit, ardor, daring, pluck. 3 (Imit.) The bass-sound in music, and the bass-end or bassmember of a pakhavāja or mṛdaṅga, sambaḷa &c. 4 The roar of a cannonading &c. 5 It is used with great freedom to express overflowing abundance, or extravagance and vehemence of action, or any scene wildly vivid and tumultuous. Ex. ambyācī dhūma; lāḍavāñcī tupācī dhūma; udamācī dhūma; pāvasānēṃ dhūma kēlī; pēṇḍhāṛyānnīṃ mulakānta dhūma māṇḍalī; kṣaṇabhara pantōjī gēlā mhaṇajē pōrēṃ dhūma māṇḍatāta; dārōḍyācī or cōrāñcī dhūma; pāhuṇyāñcī dhūma; gāṇyācī-nācaṇyācī-khēḷaṇyācī dhūma. 6 Used as ad Impetuously, vehemently, smartly, vigorously. Ex. pāūsa dhūma paḍatō; dhūma kāma cālalēṃ; jarīmarīnēṃ dhūma māṇasēṃ marūṃ lāgalīṃ; tō dhūma lōkāsa māratō-tōḍatō-śivyā dētō; dhūma phauja paḷālī- ghōḍā nighālā-tōphā suṭalyā. dhūma pāhaṇēṃ g. of o. To try one's mettle; to put to the test (one's reach, stretch, run, extent of vigor or daring). ēkā dhumāvaraca (gāṃva &c.) Situate at the distance of one run or stretch.

--- OR ---

dhūma (धूम).—m (S) Smoke.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dhūma (धूम).—f A run, a race. Spirit. ad Impetu- ously, vehemently.

--- OR ---

dhūma (धूम).—m A smoke.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dhūma (धूम).—[dhū-kampe mak]

1) Smoke, vapour; शिरांस्यपातयत्त्रीणि वेगवद्भिस्त्रिभिः शरैः । सधूमशोणितोद्गारी रामबाणाभिपीडितः (śirāṃsyapātayattrīṇi vegavadbhistribhiḥ śaraiḥ | sadhūmaśoṇitodgārī rāmabāṇābhipīḍitaḥ) || Rām. 3.27.18. धूमज्योतिःसलिलमरुतां सन्निपातः क्व मेघः (dhūmajyotiḥsalilamarutāṃ sannipātaḥ kva meghaḥ) Meghadūta 5.

2) Mist, haze.

3) (a) A meteor. (b) The fall of a meteor.

4) A cloud.

5) Smoke inhaled (as a sternutatory).

6) Belch, eructation.

7) A place prepared for the building of a house.

Derivable forms: dhūmaḥ (धूमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūma (धूम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Smoke. 2. Scent. E. dhū to agitate, Unadi affix mak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūma (धूम).— (vb. dhū, or dhmā), m. Smoke, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 69.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūma (धूम).—([masculine] sgl. & [plural]) smoke, vapour, incense.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dhūma (धूम):—[from dhū] a m. (√dhū or 1. dhvan) smoke, vapour, mist, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] smoke as a sternutatory (in 5 forms), [Suśruta] : a place prepared for the building of a house, [Jyotiṣa]

3) [v.s. ...] wheat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a kind of incense, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a saint, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a man [gana] gargādi

7) Dhūmā (धूमा):—[from dhūma > dhū] f. a kind of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Dhūma (धूम):—[from dhū] cf. [Latin] fumus.

9) [from dhūp] b See above.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūma (धूम):—(maḥ) 1. m. Smoke; a sage.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dhūma (धूम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Dhūma, Dhūmāa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dhuma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dhūma (धूम) [Also spelled dhoom]:—(nm) smoke; fume; (nf) fanfare, tumult, bustle, pomp; ado; eceat; boom; ~[kara] a smoker; ~[ketu] a comet; -[dhaḍakkā/~dhāma] hustle and bustle, fanfare, tumult, eclat; pomp; ~[dhāma se] with fanfare, with great pomp and eclat; in a tumultuous manner; ~[pāna] smoking; ~[yāna] a railway train; —[macanā/honā] to have great fanfare, a tumult to be raised/created; to be or become famous or notorious.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Ḍhuma (ढुम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Bhram.

Ḍhuma has the following synonyms: Ḍhusa.

2) Dhūma (धूम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dhūma.

3) Dhūma (धूम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dhūma.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dhūma (ಧೂಮ):—

1) [noun] the grey, brown or blackish mixture of gases emitted by a burning object; smoke.

2) [noun] a visible collection of particles of water or ice suspended in the air, usu. at an elevation above the earth’s surface; a cloud.

3) [noun] a celestial body moving about the sun, in a highly eccentric orbit, consisting of a central mass surrounded by an envelope of dust and gas that may form a tail that streams away from the sun; a comet.

4) [noun] (myth.) one of the hells.

5) [noun] the large, evergreen tree Dipterocarpus bourdillonii of Dipterocarpaceae family.

6) [noun] another tree of the same family Dipterocarpus indicus (D. turbinatus).

7) [noun] a foretelling of the prosperity of a person living in a house, based on the remainder got by dividing the area of the site of the building by 8.

8) [noun] (Dvaita. phil.) Viṣṇu, the Supreme Being.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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