Dardura, aka: Dārdura; 11 Definition(s)
Dardura means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
1) Dardura (दर्दुर):—One of the two variations of Rasaka (‘zinc ore, calamine’), which is part of the mahārasa group of minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Kāravellaka is used for satvapātana purposes. It is considered as sarvamehahare (that which destroys all types of meha (urinary) rogas) and also pitta-śleṣma-vināśana (that which pacifies pitta-doṣa and kapha-doṣa).
2) Dardura (दर्दुर) or Dardurarasa is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 3, atisāra: diarrhoea). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). Meghanādā is an ayurveda treatment and should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.
Accordingly, when using such recipes (eg., dardura-rasa): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)(Source): Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Dardura (दर्दुर) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The literal translation of the word is “a cloud”. The plant Dardura is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Dardura is said to be cold, unctuous, non-heavy, promoting the stability of and alleviates the three doṣas.(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Dardura (दर्दुर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “frog” of the smaller variety. According to the Manusmṛti XII.64, one is reborn as a dardura when commiting the sin of stealing linen. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Dardura (दर्दुर).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1a) Dardura (दर्दुर).—Vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 34.
1b) A mountain of the Bhāratavarṣa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 90.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Dardura (दर्दुर) or Dardara refers to one of the major types of drums (puṣkara) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Dardura is also called ‘Dardara’. Possibly this is the right form of the name. One side of its wooden frame is covered with hide; it looks like a large gong. See also note 6 on XXVIII 4-5.
Dardura is first mentioned in Nāṭyaśāstra 4.253, after Śiva danced using Recakas and Aṅgahāras, and Pārvatī performed a ‘gentle dance’.
According to verse 33.242-244.—“the dardura should be like a bell sixteen fingers in diametre. Its face should be that of ghaṭa and should be twelve fingers in diametre, and have a fat lip on all sides”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Dardura (दर्दुर) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Mount Dardura may be little difficulty identified with the Nīlgiri in the Madras Presidency. Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa mention that, the mountains of Malaya and Dardura are situated in close proximity in the southern-most part of India near Tāmraparṇi (IV. 50-51). But Rājaśekhara locates the Dardura hills in the eastern India; it ought to be identified with the Deograrh peak in the eastern part of the Vindhyas.(Source): Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Katha (narrative stories)
Dardura (दर्दुर) is the name of a singing-teaching (gītācārya) from Vidiśā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 71. Accordingly, as the Manorathasiddhi said to prince Kamalākara: “... there [at Vidiśā] I was staying in the house of a professor of singing, named Dardura and one day he happened to say to me: ‘To-morrow the daughter of the king, named Haṃsāvalī, will exhibit in his presence her skill in dancing, which she has lately been taught’”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Dardura, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Languages of India and abroad
dardura (दर्दुर).—m S A frog.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dardura (दर्दुर).—m A frog.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Dardura (दर्दुर).—[dṛṇāti karṇau śabdena urac ni° Tv.]
1) A frog; पङ्कक्लिन्नमुखाः पिबन्ति सलिलं धाराहता दर्दुराः (paṅkaklinnamukhāḥ pibanti salilaṃ dhārāhatā dardurāḥ) Mk.5.14.
2) A cloud.
3) A kind of musical instrument such as a flute.
4) A mountain; (darduromalayasaṃnikṛṣṭaścandanagiriḥ Rām.2. 15.34. com.).
5) Name of a mountain in the south (associated with Malaya); स्तनाविव दिशस्तस्याः शैलौ मलयदर्दुरौ (stanāviva diśastasyāḥ śailau malayadardurau) R. 4.51.
6) The sound of a drum.
7) A sort of rice.
8) A demon; L. D. B.
-rā, -rī Name of Durgā.
-ram A group or assembly of villages, district, province.
Derivable forms: darduraḥ (दर्दुरः).
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Dārdura (दार्दुर).—1 A conch-shell the valve of which opens to the right.
3) Lac. -a.
1) Relating to the दर्दुर (dardura) mountain; गन्धान् मनोज्ञान् विसृजद्दार्दुरं शिखरं यथा (gandhān manojñān visṛjaddārduraṃ śikharaṃ yathā) Rām.2.15.34.
2) Relating to a cloud.
Derivable forms: dārduraḥ (दार्दुरः), dārduram (दार्दुरम्).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 17 books and stories containing Dardura or Dārdura. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 12 - Tuber Poison (12): Dardura < [Chapter XXX - Visha (poisons)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 13 - Treatment for diarrhea (4): Dardura rasa < [Chapter III - Jvaratisara fever with diarrhoea]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.1.29 < [Part 1 - Laughing Ecstasy (hāsya-rasa)]
Verse 2.1.237 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Rasaka/Kharpara (calamine) < [Chapter VII - Uparasa (8): Rasaka or Kharpara (calamine)]