Dardura, Dārdura: 17 definitions

Introduction

Dardura means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

1) Dardura (दर्दुर):—One of the two variations of Rasaka (‘zinc ore, calamine’), which is part of the mahārasa group of minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Kāravellaka is used for satvapātana purposes. It is considered as sarvamehahare (that which destroys all types of meha (urinary) rogas) and also pitta-śleṣma-vināśana (that which pacifies pitta-doṣa and kapha-doṣa).

2) Dardura (दर्दुर) or Dardurarasa is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 3, atisāra: diarrhoea). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). Meghanādā is an ayurveda treatment and should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.

Accordingly, when using such recipes (eg., dardura-rasa): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Dardura (दर्दुर) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The literal translation of the word is “a cloud”. The plant Dardura is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Dardura is said to be cold, unctuous, non-heavy, promoting the stability of and alleviates the three doṣas.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Dardura (दर्दुर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “frog” of the smaller variety. According to the Manusmṛti XII.64, one is reborn as a dardura when commiting the sin of stealing linen. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Dardura (दर्दुर).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Dardura (दर्दुर).—Vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 34.

1b) A mountain of the Bhāratavarṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 90.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Dardura (दर्दुर) or Dardara refers to one of the major types of drums (puṣkara) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Dardura is also called ‘Dardara’. Possibly this is the right form of the name. One side of its wooden frame is covered with hide; it looks like a large gong. See also note 6 on XXVIII 4-5.

Dardura is first mentioned in Nāṭyaśāstra 4.253, after Śiva danced using Recakas and Aṅgahāras, and Pārvatī performed a ‘gentle dance’.

According to verse 33.242-244.—“the dardura should be like a bell sixteen fingers in diametre. Its face should be that of ghaṭa and should be twelve fingers in diametre, and have a fat lip on all sides”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (D) next»] — Dardura in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Dardura (दर्दुर) is the name of a singing-teaching (gītācārya) from Vidiśā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 71. Accordingly, as the Manorathasiddhi said to prince Kamalākara: “... there [at Vidiśā] I was staying in the house of a professor of singing, named Dardura and one day he happened to say to me: ‘To-morrow the daughter of the king, named Haṃsāvalī, will exhibit in his presence her skill in dancing, which she has lately been taught’”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Dardura, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Dardura (दर्दुर) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Mount Dardura may be little difficulty identified with the Nīlgiri in the Madras Presidency. Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa mention that, the mountains of Malaya and Dardura are situated in close proximity in the southern-most part of India near Tāmraparṇi (IV. 50-51). But Rājaśekhara locates the Dardura hills in the eastern India; it ought to be identified with the Deograrh peak in the eastern part of the Vindhyas.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Dardura (दर्दुर) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Dardura has 21 mātrās in each of their four lines, divided into groups of 4, 5, 5, 4, 3 (IS) mātras.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dardura (दर्दुर).—m S A frog.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dardura (दर्दुर).—m A frog.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dardura (दर्दुर).—[dṛṇāti karṇau śabdena urac ni° Tv.]

1) A frog; पङ्कक्लिन्नमुखाः पिबन्ति सलिलं धाराहता दर्दुराः (paṅkaklinnamukhāḥ pibanti salilaṃ dhārāhatā dardurāḥ) Mk.5.14.

2) A cloud.

3) A kind of musical instrument such as a flute.

4) A mountain; (darduromalayasaṃnikṛṣṭaścandanagiriḥ Rām.2. 15.34. com.).

5) Name of a mountain in the south (associated with Malaya); स्तनाविव दिशस्तस्याः शैलौ मलयदर्दुरौ (stanāviva diśastasyāḥ śailau malayadardurau) R. 4.51.

6) The sound of a drum.

7) A sort of rice.

8) A demon; L. D. B.

-rā, -rī Name of Durgā.

-ram A group or assembly of villages, district, province.

Derivable forms: darduraḥ (दर्दुरः).

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Dārdura (दार्दुर).—1 A conch-shell the valve of which opens to the right.

2) Water.

3) Lac. -a.

1) Relating to the दर्दुर (dardura) mountain; गन्धान् मनोज्ञान् विसृजद्दार्दुरं शिखरं यथा (gandhān manojñān visṛjaddārduraṃ śikharaṃ yathā) Rām.2.15.34.

2) Relating to a cloud.

Derivable forms: dārduraḥ (दार्दुरः), dārduram (दार्दुरम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dardura (दर्दुर) or Dadrula or Dardara or Dardula or Dradula.—adj. (all these spellings recorded in the mss.; compare Sanskrit dadruṇa, adj., Schmidt, Nachträge; from the noun Sanskrit dadru, Pali and AMg. daddu, a skin disease variously alleged to be leprosy or ringworm), afflicted with a skin- disease, leprosy or ringworm(?), in a list of adj. describing physical deformities, see quotations s.v. khoḍa, lame. Senart's readings vary and are not always related to the wildly varying readings of the mss., which I quote: Mahāvastu ii.150.9 darduro, dardaro; 152.3 dradulo (only one ms.); 153.19 dadrulaṃ, dradulaṃ; 156.12 dadrulaṃ, (da)rdulaṃ.

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Dardura (दर्दुर).—variant for dadrula, q.v.

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Dardurā (दर्दुरा).—(?) (most mss. dardarā), sc. lipi, a kind of script: Mahāvastu i.135.7. Senart's note mentions this as one of the forms in the list which ‘ne laissent guère d'incertitude’; to me it is by no means clear. Did Senart mean to associate it with the Sanskrit name of the mountain range, often asso- ciated with Malaya? As a mountain name. Dardara (rare and doubtful in Sanskrit, but in Pali Daddara) would merit consideration, as supported by most mss. But one would not expect a mountain-name here.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dardura (दर्दुर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A frog. 2. A cloud. 3. A mountain. 4. A sort or musical instrument, a pipe or flute. n.

(-raṃ) A number of villages. f.

(-rā) A name of Durga. E. dṝ to tear, Unadi affix urac, and the radical repeated.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dardura (दर्दुर).—[dardur + a] (anomal. [frequentative.] of dṛ10), m. 1. A frog, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 64. 2. A flute, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 10, 15. 3. The name of a mountain, Rām, 5, 34, 7. 4. A proper name, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 7, 34.

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Dārdura (दार्दुर).—i. e. dardura + a, adj., f. , and dārdurika dārdurika, i. e. dardura + ika, f. , Referring to a frog, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 4162; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 3, 20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dardura (दर्दुर).—[masculine] frog, flute; [Name] of a mountain & [several] men.

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Dārdura (दार्दुर).—[feminine] ī belonging to a frog.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dardura (दर्दुर):—[from dara] m. a frog (cf. kūpa-), [Manu-smṛti xii, 64; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a flute (cf. jala-), [Mṛcchakaṭikā iii, 18/19; Bhāgavata-purāṇa i, 10, 15]

3) [v.s. ...] the sound of a drum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a cloud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a kind of rice, [Caraka i, 27]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a southern mountain (often named with Malaya), [Mahābhārata ii f.; Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] of a man, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ii, 7, 34]

8) [v.s. ...] of a singing master, [Kathāsaritsāgara lxxi, 73]

9) [v.s. ...] = raka, [Mṛcchakaṭikā ii, 11/12]

10) [v.s. ...] n. a kind of talc, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

11) [v.s. ...] an assemblage of villages, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] nf (ā, ī). Durgā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Dārdura (दार्दुर):—mf(ī)n. ([from] dardura) relating to a cloud, [Harivaṃśa 4162]

14) a frog’s (bite), [Caraka vi, 23]

15) belonging to the mountain Dardura, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 15, 33]

16) n. a conch-shell the valve of which opens to the right, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) lac, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) the ways of a frog, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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