Dandaniti, Daṇḍanīti, Danda-niti: 16 definitions
Dandaniti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति) refers to “science of government”. It represents a branch of knowledge, dealing with justice and injustice, of which the King should be familiar with. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 7.43)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Google Books: The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons
In the Mahabharata, we read that Lord Brahma wrote the first Dandaniti containing 100,000 chapters. It was then reduced to 10,000 chapters by Lord Shiva, called Vaisataksa. Indra reduced the size of Vaisataksa to 5,000 chapters and called it Bahudandaka. Then Brhaspathy reduced its size to about 3,000 chapters and named it Brhaspatya. Finally, Usanas condensed the Brhaspatya to about 1,000 chapters, which was known as Nitisara. Although the original Nitisara is said to have contained 1,000 chapters, no such work is now available, and it is quite probable that the Sukraniti, which contains about 2,200 verses, is either a condensed version of Usanas’ Nitisara, or a part of it enlarged by Shukracharya.Source: Shodhganga: Rajadharma in the Mahabharata
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति).—According to Bṛhaspati, the science of politics is teachnically called daṇḍanīti. Taking the reference of the old Arthaśāstra, he says that, daṇḍanīti is the only science (vidyā). It should be studied by all the four castes.
He further says that, daṇḍanīti is differently used in four ages. In the Kṛta (Satya) age it is fully learnt by the people. In the Tretā age people are active and skilled in policy, in Dvāpara age men depend on tantras and are versed in policy and at last in Kali age men are strong in knowledge and action by one quarter and are versed in daṇḍanīti, and that thereafter the men are of contrary rules of life, colour and dress and are devoid of daṇḍanīti.Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति) refers to “law and governance” and represents one of the four classes of knowledge needed to run a state according to Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra (4th century BCE): one of the most influential treatises of political science.
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति).—(The laws of chastisement). Daṇḍanīti is the law of punishment given to the subjects by Kings of ancient India. According to the criminal laws of ancient India, fining a man upto two hundred and fifty paṇas (a coin) was called Prathama Śāhasa daṇḍa (first degree of punishment) and fining up to five hundred paṇas was called Madhyama Sāhasa daṇḍa (medium punishment) and fining upto thousand paṇas was called Uttama Sāhasa daṇḍa (highest degree of punishment). If a man complains to the King that his property is stolen, when actually it is not stolen, the man will be fined the amount that is said to have been stolen. There was another law, that the owner of the stolen property and the thief would have to pay double the amount they admit, if the amount shown in the complaint differed from the actual amount stolen. For appearing as false witness, the three classes of non-Brahmins were punished with fine and if he was a Brahmin he would have to be cast out of the society. The King ordered that if one spent the property entrusted with him for keeping, the owner of the property would have to be paid double the amount. If one says that he has given the property for keeping when actually it is not, the person will have to be punished as if he were a thief. If a man spends an amount without knowing that it was the property of others, the man will have to be acquitted of the charge. (See full article at Story of Daṇḍanīti from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति).—The Science of Politics; a vidyā, produced by Brahmā;1 not seen in Puṣkaradvīpa;2 for the establishment of orderly progress;3 for the preservation of self-respect and one's own duties;4 symbolical of Devī.5
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12. 44; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 29. 8-9; 32. 40; 35. 195: Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 10. 29.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 122; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 83.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 123. 24; 142. 74; 145. 36; 215. 54.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 118; 57. 82; 59. 26; 61. 164.
- 5) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 9. 121.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
daṇḍanīti (दंडनीति).—f S Moral philosophy, morals, ethics; the laws and rules for secular deportment and procedure. The words daṇḍanīti, arthaśāstra, vyavahāra- śāstra, dṛṣṭārthaśāstra approximate as synonymes, and are contrad. from dharmaśāstra The science of Religion. 2 Under another explanation of the root, Law-- the science or system of coercion by punishment. This is the fourth of the four divisions of rājanīti. 3 See further under arthaśāstra & ānvīkṣikī.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
daṇḍanīti (दंडनीति).—f Moral philosophy, ethics, morals; the laws and rules for secular deportment and procedure; con- trad. from dharmaśāstra. Law, the science or system of coercion by punishment.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) administration of justice, judicature.
2) the system of civil and military administration, the science of politics, polity; Ms.7.43; Y.1.311; फलान्युपायुङ्क्त स दण्ड- नीतेः (phalānyupāyuṅkta sa daṇḍa- nīteḥ) R.18.46; जरातुरः संप्रति दण्डनीत्या सर्वं नृपस्यानुकरोमि वृत्तम् (jarāturaḥ saṃprati daṇḍanītyā sarvaṃ nṛpasyānukaromi vṛttam) Nāg.4.1.
3) an epithet of Durgā.
Derivable forms: daṇḍanītiḥ (दण्डनीतिः).
Daṇḍanīti is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms daṇḍa and nīti (नीति).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tiḥ) Polity, the system of civil and military administration taught by Chanakya and others. E. daṇḍa (by) punishment or subjection, nī to get or obtain, and ktic aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति).—f. the science of criminal justice, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 43. Rājanīti, i. e.
Daṇḍanīti is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms daṇḍa and nīti (नीति).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति).—[feminine] application of the rod i.e. administration of justice.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति):—[=daṇḍa-nīti] [from daṇḍa] f. application of the rod, administration of justice, judicature (as a science), [Manu-smṛti vii, 43; Yājñavalkya i, 310; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] Name of [work] [Raghuvaṃśa i, 26 [Scholiast or Commentator]]
3) [v.s. ...] Durgā, [DevīP.]
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Daṇḍanīti (दण्डनीति):—f. —
1) die Führung des Stockes , so v.a. Gerechtigkeitspflege , die Lehre von der gerechten Anwendung der Strafe. —
2) Titel eines Werkes. —
3) Beiname der Durgā.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Search found 11 books and stories containing Dandaniti, Daṇḍanīti, Danda-niti, Daṇḍa-nīti; (plurals include: Dandanitis, Daṇḍanītis, nitis, nītis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 4 - Vārtā and Daṇḍanīti < [Book 1 - Concerning Discipline]
Chapter 2 - Determination of the Place of Ānvīkṣakī < [Book 1 - Concerning Discipline]
Chapter 5 - Association with the Aged < [Book 1 - Concerning Discipline]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)
Vasistha Dharmasutra (by Georg Bühler)
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)