Dandaka, Daṇḍaka, Daṇḍakā, Damdaka: 28 definitions
Dandaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—One of the eight types of villages, according to Chapter 9 of the Mānasāra (called the grāmalakṣaṇam). The Mānasāra is one of the traditional authorative Hindu treatises on Vāstuśāstra (science of architecture). The form of this village is said to be tattadrūpeṇa, which means it represents the form of the meaning of its Sanskrit name.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Daṇḍakā (दण्डका):—One of the most prominent sons of Ikṣvāku (son of Śrāddhadeva or Vaivasvata Manu). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.6.4)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—See Daṇḍa VI.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) or Daṇḍakāraṇya is the name of a forest, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.24. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Once Śiva accompanied by Satī and seated on His Bull wandered over the Earth, in one of his sportive activities. Wandering over the ocean-girt Earth He reached Daṇḍaka forest where the lord of truthful stake and transaction pointed to Satī the beauty of the surrounding nature. There Śiva saw Rāma who was searching for Sitā who was deceitfully abducted by Rāvaṇa. Lakṣmaṇa too was there”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 58; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 126.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 107.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 48.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Daṇḍaka may be situated in south India between the countries of Cola and Kāñci. However it is difficult to identify with Daṇḍakāvana of the Rāmāyaṇa, since Rājaśekhara mentions Mahārāṣtra etc. Comprising the real Daṇḍakāranya to the modern concepts as separate country.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
1) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—Piṅgala speaks about daṇḍaka that if each pāda of an even metre consists of 2 na-gaṇas followed by 7 ra-gaṇas, then the metre is called daṇḍaka. He introduces the first daṇḍaka as caṇḍavṛṣṭiprayāta. He also refers to his predecessors in this context and says Prosodists like Rāta and Māṇḍavya have different opinion regarding the nomenclature of caṇḍavṛṣṭiprayāṭa. Piṅgala also says that daṇḍakas other than caṇḍavṛṣṭiprayāta are known as pracita.
2) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—According to Padmanābha-datta (1350-1400 C.E.) in his Chandomañjarī, the metre which has above 26 letters in its each pāda is called as daṇḍaka. It is also considered as samavṛtta. He describes the daṇḍakas like other metres with illustration of characteristics and examples. He says about daṇḍakas that every daṇḍaka has two na-gaṇas in its beginning and if a ra-gaṇa is added after every seventh viz. arṇa, arṇava, vyāla, jīmūta, līlākara, uddāma, śaṅkha etc. are possible.
3) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—Though Kavikarṇapūra (C. 16th century) does not discuss much on daṇḍaka metres, he emphasizes on their divisions. He has divided the daṇḍakas into eight varieties with the initial metre i.e. Caṇḍavṛṣṭiprapāta, where as authors like Gaṅgādāsa and Kedāra Bhaṭṭa name the metre as Caṇḍavṛṣṭiprayāta. The eight daṇḍakas are: Caṇḍavṛṣṭiprapāta, Arṇa, Arṇava, Vyāla, Jīmūta, Līlākara, Uddāma and Śaṅkha. He also describes the characteristics separately for each metres.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Dandaka (दंडक): A kingdom and a forest, had the same name, was a colonial state of Lanka under the reign of Ravana. Ravana's governor Khara ruled this province. It was the stronghold of all the Rakshasa tribes living in the Dandaka Forest.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) is the name of a forest that was destroyed due to the mental misdeed of Ṛṣis according to the Upālisutta of the Majjhima mentioned in Appendix 1 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXIV).—Accordingly, “Have you heard, O householder, how the forest of Daṇḍaka, the forest of Kāliṅga, the forest of Mejjha and the forest of Mātaṅga have been deserted and emptied of inhabitants? – I have heard, O venerable one, that it was be the mental misdeed of Ṛṣis”.
Daṇḍaka covered the entire region of the Vindhya from the Vidarbha to the Kaliṅga. But the destruction of the Daṇḍaka is well known in the Buddhist tradition: The Pāli texts (Jātaka III, p. 463, V, p. 133 and Papañca, III, p. 60–65) and the Mahāvastu, III, p. 363.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) is the name of an ancient king and ancestor of king Mahābala (i.e., previous incarnation of Ṛṣabha), as mentioned in chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as Svayambuddha said to king Mahābala:— “In your family there was another king, named Daṇḍaka, whose rule was cruel, like Yama in person to his enemies. He had a son, known as Maṇimālin, filling the sky with splendor like the sun. Daṇḍaka became infatuated with his sons, friends, and wife, jewels, gold, and money, which were more desired than life itself. In course of time Daṇḍaka died, absorbed in painful meditation and was born in his own treasury as a boa constrictor, unrestrainable. Cruel, devouring everything like a fire that has started, he killed whoever entered the treasury”.
2) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra].—Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya: “All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and other countries which are the ornaments of the eastern quarter; [... in the Daṇḍakas, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.Source: University of Cambridge: Jainism
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) in the title of “Laghudaṇḍaka” is a Jaina technical term referring to parametres relating to the description of living beings. The most common list, which is found here, has 24 terms in Prakrit:
- type of body (sarīra),
- extension (ogāhaṇā),
- joining of the bones (saṃghayaṇa),
- form of the body (saṃṭhāṇa),
- passions (kasāya),
- spiritual hue (lessā),
- senses (india),
- expulsion of atoms (samugghāya),
- belief (diṭṭhī),
- faith (daṃsaṇa),
- knowledge (nāṇa),
- negative knowledge,
- activity (joga),
- imagination (uvaoga),
- mode of birth (uvavāya),
- descent on earth (cavaṇa),
- duration (ṭhii),
- development (pajjatti),
- which nourishment? (kim-āhāre),
- consciousness (sanni),
- destiny (gaī),
- coming back (āgai),
- sexual inclination (vee).
This has been the starting point of a variety of works, among which the Caturviṃśatidaṇḍaka by Gajasāra stands as a classic.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Wisdom Library: India History
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) is the name of a country included within Dakṣiṇapatha which was situated ahead of Māhiṣmatī according to Rājaśekhara (fl. 10th century) in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā (chapter 17). Dakṣiṇāpatha is a place-name ending is patha mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Daṇḍaka.—(EI 30), probably, a regulation. (IE 8-8), meaning uncertain; probably, fines. Cf. daṇḍaku (IA 16), a boundary mark or land-mark. Note: daṇḍaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
daṇḍaka : (nt.) a stick, twig, rod, a handle.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Daṇḍaka, (Demin. of daṇḍa) 1. a (small) stick, a twig; a staff, a rod; a handle D.I, 7 (a walking stick carried for ornament: see DA.I, 89); J.I, 120 (sukkha° a dry twig); II, 103; III, 26; DhA.III, 171; Vism.353.—aḍḍha° a (birch) rod, used as a means of beating (tāḷeti) A.I, 47; II, 122=M.I, 87=Nd2 604=Miln.197; ubhato° two handled (of a saw) M.I, 129=189; ratha° the flag-staff of a chariot Miln.27; veṇu° a jungle rope J.III, 204.—See also kudaṇḍaka a twig used for tying J.III, 204.—2. the crossbar or bridge of a lute J.II, 252, 253.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
daṇḍaka (दंडक).—m S Custom, practice, usage. 2 A sort of metre. 3 Intercourse. 4 A long (esp. as bare and dreary) road or line of space.
--- OR ---
dāṇḍakā (दांडका).—m dāṇḍakēṃ n dāṇḍagēṃ n (dāṇḍa) A short piece of wood:--as a cudgel, a roller, a ruler, a strickle.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
daṇḍaka (दंडक).—m Custom, practice, usage.
--- OR ---
dāṇḍakā (दांडका).—m dāḍakēṃ-gēṃ n A short piece of wood, a cudgel.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A stick, staff &c. (such as a handle of a parasol, the beam of a plough, the staff of a banner).
2) A line, row.
3) Name of a metre; see App. I.
-kaḥ, -kā, -kam Name of a celebrated district in the Deccan situated between the rivers Narmadā and Godāvarī (it was a vast region said to be tenantless in the time of Rāma); प्राप्तानि दुःखान्यपि दण्डकेषु (prāptāni duḥkhānyapi daṇḍakeṣu) R.14.25; किं नाम दण्डकेयम् (kiṃ nāma daṇḍakeyam) U.2; क्वायोध्यायाः पुनरुपगमो दण्डकायां वने वः (kvāyodhyāyāḥ punarupagamo daṇḍakāyāṃ vane vaḥ) U.2.13,14,15.
Derivable forms: daṇḍakaḥ (दण्डकः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—(-vana), name of a forest (compare Pali Daṇḍa-kārañña? but in Lalitavistara associated with an evil person named Brahmadatta): Lalitavistara 316.2. Tibetan transliterates, dan ta ka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ-kaṃ) A sort of metre, the stanza of which exceeds twenty-seven syllables, and may extend to 200. f.
(-kā) The peninsula of India, from between the Narmada and Godaveri rivers to the south, the whole of which, in the days of Rama, was a large forest. E. daṇḍa a staff, &c. and svārthe ka aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—[daṇḍa + ka], m. and n. 1. The staff of a banner, Mahābhārata 7, 1569. 2. also f. kā, The name of a great forest in the Dekhan, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 39; [Mahāvīracharita, (ed. Trithen.)] 65, 11. 3. m. pl. The name of the inhabitants of this locality, and of the locality itself, Mahābhārata 13, 7223; [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 21, 63. 4. m. A proper name, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 637.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक).—[masculine] stick, staff (also [feminine] daṇḍikā), flagstaff; [neuter] = seq.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Vs. Oxf. 382^b. Peters. 2, 170. See Vedadaṇḍaka.
2) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—kāvya. B. 2, 84.
3) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—vaid. See Saṃhitāº, Sāmavedasaṃhitāº. Delete Vedadaṇḍaka.
4) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—kāvya, by Tulasīdāsa. Peters. 4, 26.
5) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—Vs. Ulwar 159.
6) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—vaidic. Ak 60 ([anonymous]).
—Vs. selected mantrāḥ. Bd. 25. 26. L.. 127. 128.
1) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—[from daṇḍa] a m. ([gana] ṛśyādi) (n. [gana] ardharcādi) ifc. ‘a staff’ See tri-
2) [v.s. ...] a handle (of a parasol), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] the beam (of a plough), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] the staff of a banner, [Mahābhārata vii, ix]
5) [v.s. ...] ([Pāṇini 5-3, 87; Kāśikā-vṛtti]) Name of a plant, [Suśruta v, 7, 1]
6) [v.s. ...] a row, line, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]
7) [v.s. ...] a class of metres the stanzas of which may extend from 4 x 27 to 4X 999 syllables, [Chandaḥ-sūtra vii, 33-36; HanRāmUp. 15]
8) [v.s. ...] a kind of spasm, [Caraka vi, 28; Bhāvaprakāśa vii, 36, 171 and 227]
9) [v.s. ...] (ḍākhya) 171/172
10) [v.s. ...] Name of [work] relating to, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]
11) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Ikṣvāku (whose country was laid waste by the curse of Bhārgava, whose daughter he had violated; his kingdom in consequence became the kāraṇya), [Mahābhārata] xii (allusion only), [Harivaṃśa 637; Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 6, 4; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra] ([varia lectio] dāṇḍakya)
12) [v.s. ...] ṇḍa, [Rāmāyaṇa vii.79, 15; Viṣṇu-purāṇa iv 2, 4; Vāyu-purāṇa ii, 26, 9; Padma-purāṇa i]
13) [v.s. ...] Name of a silly man, [Bharaṭaka-dvātriṃśikā xxv]
14) [v.s. ...] of an Asura, [Vīracarita xvi]
15) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] the inhabitants of kāraṇya, [Mahābhārata ii, xiii; Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
16) [v.s. ...] n. = kāraṇya, [Mahābhārata xiii; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 11, 19; Prasannarāghava vii, 77] ([plural])
17) Daṇḍakā (दण्डका):—[from daṇḍaka > daṇḍa] f. idem, [Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa] xiii (colophon), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Mahāvīra-caritra iv, 40/41]
18) Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—[from dāṇḍa] b m. Name of a Bhoja ([varia lectio] kya).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Daṇḍaka (दण्डक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. A metre; a vessel. f. (kā) Peninsula of India.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)