Curna, Cūrṇa: 27 definitions

Introduction:

Curna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Churna.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) is a Sanskrit technical term, referring to “powder”. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण, “powder”).—The dried drug is pounded finely without adding any liquid and strained though cloth. This is known as Cūrṇa. Kṣoda and rajas are its synonyms.

Source: Academia.edu: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics

Cūrna (Powder): The dried and powdered form of herb is cūrna. It is dry and can be preserved for longer periods. The shelf life of cūrnas were calculated to 6 months in the literature of Āyurvēda, however, with the advent of modern technology and better quality containers, the powders can be stored up to two years. Ex: Triphala cūrna contains equal parts of powders made from Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Emblica officinalis.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण, “powder”) refers to the “dried” (grounded paste of medicine) and represents one of the various Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and formulations.—Ayurvedic medicine are of different types. They can be used as single drugs, i.e. plants, metals and mineral drugs and animal drugs used in a single.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

The fine sieved powder of well dried drug(s) is called Cūrṇa. (see the Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā II.6.1, which is a 14th century medicinal Ayurvedic treatise in Sanskrit written by Śārṅgadhara).

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to “prosaic speech”. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to “lime § 2.16.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण, “powder”) refers to “powdered sesamum mixed with rice” and represents one of the items offered to the nine planets (navagraha), according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 302-303: Faggots to be burned]—These two verses prescribe different faggots [i.e., cūrṇa] to be burned for grahas with offerings of honey, ghee, dadhi, and milk. It is interesting to note that some of the faggots (i.e. parāśa, khadira, pippala, and śamī) mentioned here are also used in the Suśrutasaṃhitā in the context (Uttaratantra chapters 27-37) of curing the diseases caused by grahas, which, in this case, are not planetary. [verse 304-305: Cooked rice (odana) to be offered to grahas]

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to “magic powders”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 226).—There are apparently several Tantric rites that Bāṇa pejoratively associates with the priest: [...] “his ear-cavities were punched by those possessed by Piśāca-demons, who had run to him when struck by white mustard seed he had empowered with mantras more than once”; “he had used magic powders (cūrṇa) for snaring women many times on aging mendicant ladies, who having arrived from other lands retired [there to rest]”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to “shampoo powder”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.45 (“Śiva’s comely form and the Jubilation of the Citizens”).—Accordingly, after Menā spoke to Śiva: “After saying thus and eulogising the moon-crested lord, Menā, the beloved of the mountain, bowed to Him with palms joined in reverence and stood shy. By that time the ladies of the town left the work they were engaged in, in their eagerness to see Śiva. A certain lady in the midst of her bath and toilet was overwhelmed with the desire to see Śiva, the bridegroom of Pārvatī. She came out with the shampoo powder (cūrṇa) still held in her hands. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to “(showering) powders”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Then, by the unconditioned magical power of manifestation, by the miraculous performances (vikrīḍita) of the Buddha [Ekaratnavyūha], [Gaganagañja with the other Bodhisattvas] teleported from the Mahāvyūha universe to the Sahā universe, in one moment of thought, and sat down there. They showered flowers, garlands, powders (cūrṇa), perfumes, unguents, parasols, banners, flags from the Mahāvyūha universe pouring down as rain”

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to “powder” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “Pills should be made of pungent mustard seed oil, honey, oleander-flower, nāgapuṣpa and powder (cūrṇa). Then the pills should be thrown into the Nāga lake. After the mantra has been recited 108 times, and merely upon throwing [pills] into the lake, all Nāgas rejoice. They send forth great rain showers. If it does not rain on the same day, the bodies of those Nāgas will be destroyed. They will have head diseases, there will be suffering for them”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) refers to one of the six types of division (bheda) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.24.—What is the meaning of cūrṇa? Flour of wheat etc is called cūrṇa.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cūrṇa (चूर्ण).—n (S) Powder or dust: also crumbs, particles, fragments. 2 Lime.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

cūrṇa (चूर्ण).—n Powder. Lime.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण).—[cūrṇ karmaṇi ac]

1) Powder.

2) Flour.

3) Dust; तत्राश्मचूर्णान्यपतन् पावकप्रकरा इव (tatrāśmacūrṇānyapatan pāvakaprakarā iva) Rām.1.171.3.

4) Aromatic powder, pounded sandal, camphor &c; भवति विफलप्रेरणा चूर्णमुष्टिः (bhavati viphalapreraṇā cūrṇamuṣṭiḥ) Meghadūta 68.

-rṇaḥ 1 Chalk.

2) Lime.

3) Pounding.

Derivable forms: cūrṇaḥ (चूर्णः), cūrṇam (चूर्णम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण).—adj.? in Mahāvastu ii.87.12 (kiṃ) karmārāṇāṃ sarva-cūrṇa-karmaṃ ? sūcīyo, what is the most delicate (so Senart; or, profound, significant, important?) work of smiths? Needles. Perh. compare [Jaina Māhārāṣṭrī] cuṇṇa, n., defined by [Paia-sadda-mahaṇṇavo] pada- viśeṣa, gambhīrārthaka pada, mahārthaka śabda. [Paia-sadda-mahaṇṇavo] derives from a Sanskrit caurṇa, of which I can find no trace; if a secondary derivative of cūrṇa, it might mean lit. polished with powder, rubbed down, or the like, and so refined or subtle. Cf. Sanskrit cūrṇi, cūrṇī, and s.v. cūrṇika below (?).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण).—mn.

(-rṇaḥ-rṇaṃ) 1. Powder, any pulverulent or minute division of substance. 2. Chalk, lime. 3. Aromatic powder, pounded Sandal, &c. 4. Pounded camphor. f. (-rṇī) 1. A Cowri, the shell used as a coin. 2. Selection of an unanswerable argument. 3. A river in Bengal. 4. The red powder scattered at the Holi festival. 5. Dust: see cūrṇi E. cūrṇ to pound, &c. affix. karmaṇi ac . bhāve ac peṣaṇe .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण).— (an old ptcple. pf. pass. akin to carv), m. and n. Any pulverulent or minute division of substance. 1. Flour, [Pañcatantra] 121, 11. 2. Dust, Mahābhārata 3, 10972. 3. Powder, Mahābhārata 6, 5764. 4. Aromatic powder, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 69.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण).—[adjective] ground, pulverized; [masculine] [neuter] dust, flour, powder.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cūrṇa (चूर्ण):—[from cūrṇ] mfn. (√carv) minute, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lxxxi, 6]

2) [v.s. ...] m. ([Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]) n. powder flour, aromatic powder, pounded sandal, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kauśika-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. [Pāṇini 6-2, 134])

3) [v.s. ...] m. chalk, lime, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xxvii, 36; Prabodha-candrodaya ii, 17 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Vīracarita xv, xxviii]

5) [v.s. ...] n. rice mixed with sesam, [Yājñavalkya i, 303]

6) [v.s. ...] a kind of easy prose, [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti i, 3, 25]

7) [v.s. ...] dividing a word by separating double consonant for obtaining a different sense (in a riddle, etc.), [iv, 1, 7].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cūrṇa (चूर्ण):—(ka) cūrṇayati 10. a. To contract, to wink; to throw; to grind.

2) [(rṇaḥ-rṇaṃ)] 1. m. n. Powder; lime; aromatic powder. f. (ṇī) A cowri; a posing argument; a river; a red powder; dust.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Cuṇṇa, Cuṇṇā, Cūra, Cūria, Mamūra, Mummura.

[Sanskrit to German]

Curna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Cūrṇa (चूर्ण) [Also spelled churn]:—(nm) powder, pulverized or powdered substance; digestive powder.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Cūrṇa (ಚೂರ್ಣ):—[noun] = ಚೂರ್ಣಗೆಡ್ಡೆ [curnagedde].

--- OR ---

Cūrṇa (ಚೂರ್ಣ):—

1) [noun] a white caustic alkaline substance (calcium oxide) obtained by heating limestone and used for making mortar, white-washing walls; lime.

2) [noun] a substance in the form of fine dry particles; powder; dust.

3) [noun] any aromatic powder (as of sandal, camphor, etc.).

4) [noun] a piece of a whole; a fragment.

5) [noun] a method thieving or cheating, using charming powders.

6) [noun] (rhet.) lucidity in the style of prose writing; a composition with simple and short compounds.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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