Caura, Caūra, Caurā: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Caura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chaura.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Caura (चौर) refers to “theft”, which is considered as having evil influences (vyasana), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.17. Accordingly, “[...] who is he that is not broken up by the evil influences (vyasana) of hunting (mṛgayā), wine (madya), slander (paiśunya), untruth (anṛta), theft (caura), gambling (durodara) and prostitutes (vāradāra)? The wicked fellow (Guṇanidhi) used to lay his hands on whatever he could see in the house, a cloth, a base metal etc. and take it to the gambling den, there to lose the same to his brother gamblers (dyūtakāra)”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Caura (चौर) refers to “thieves”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the Moon (candra) should be eclipsed by Ketu she will destroy prosperity, health and plenty. Artisans will perish and thieves [i.e., caura] will suffer greatly. If while the moon is eclipsed, she be crossed by the fall of a meteor, that prince will die in the star of whose nativity the moon then happens to be”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Caura (चौर) refers to “thieves”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “These excellent sacrificial paps (caruka) should not be given to Tāntrikas. O Śambhu, it should always be kept hidden, like riches from thieves (cauracaurebhyo dravinaṃ [draviṇaṃ?] yathā). Otherwise, there is no success and no tradition”.

2) Caura (चौर) refers to “stealing (knowledge)”, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “If the teachers who are in the world have little knowledge how can (authentic spiritual) knowledge be protected (from corruption)? (Indeed, such teachers) steal knowledge away (jñāna-caura). If a disciple disrespects (his) teacher (thinking to himself) ‘I have acquired the essence of (his) knowledge, (it is time to) leave’ (and does so) without saying (that he is leaving), the goddesses will block (his development) and make (him) more foolish. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Caura (चौर) refers to “thieves”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “Hunting on horseback (āśvina) represents one of the eight subdivisions of Hunting (mṛgayā). [...] It leads to the acquisition of religious merit, by killing ferocious animals such as wolves and tigers, by the protection of standing crop, by the slaughter of stags and other animals, by an inspection of the forest, which serves so many useful purposes, by frightening the thieves (caura), and by conciliating forest tribes. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Caura (चौर) refers to “(the outer suffering of) the wicked thief”, as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI in the section called “four foundations of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna)”.—Accordingly:—“[...] there are two kinds of suffering (duḥkha): inner suffering and outer suffering. [...] Outer suffering (bāhyaduḥkha) is of two types: i) the king (rājan), the victorious enemy (vijetṛ), the wicked thief (caura), the lion (siṃha), tiger (vyāghra), wolf (vṛka), snake (sarpa) and other nuisances (viheṭhana); ii) the wind (vāta), rain (vṛṣṭi), cold (śīta), heat (uṣna), thunder (meghagarjita), lightning (vidyut), thunderbolts, etc: these two kinds of suffering are outer suffering”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhist Teachers, Deities and other Spiritual beings

Caurā (चौरा) is another name for Caurimā—one of the “Fifty-eight Wrathful Deities” (Tibetan: khro bo lha nga brgyad) according to various sources such as the Guhyagarbha Tantra and the Tibetan Book of the Dead.—They feature in Tantric teachings and practices which focus on purifying elements of the body and mind. These deities [e.g., Caurā] form part part of the the Hundred Peaceful and Wrathful Deities who manifest to a deceased person following the dissolution of the body and consciousness whilst they are in the intermediate state (bardo) between death and rebirth. Caurimā is part of the “eight wrathful females” and is also known as Caurī, Caurā, Tsaurima. She is known in Tibetan as (1) tso'u ri (2) chom rkun ma.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caūra (चऊर) [or चऊरगोंडा, caūragōṇḍā].—m Better written cavara.

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caūra (चऊर).—m (Better cāhūra q. v.) A measure of land.

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cāūra (चाऊर).—m See cāvara & cāhūra.

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caura (चौर).—m (Better cāhūra q. v.) A measure of land.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caūra (चऊर).—m (Better cāhūra) A measure of land.

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caura (चौर).—m A measure of land.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caura (चौर).—

1) A thief, robber; सकलं चोर गतं त्वया गृहीतम् (sakalaṃ cora gataṃ tvayā gṛhītam) V.4.16. इन्दीवरदलप्रभाचोरं चक्षुः (indīvaradalaprabhācoraṃ cakṣuḥ) Bhartṛhari 3.67.

2) Any dishonest dealer.

2) One that steals or captivates the heart.

Derivable forms: cauraḥ (चौरः).

See also (synonyms): cora.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caura (चौर).—mf. (-raḥ-rī) 1. A thief, a robber, a pilferer. 2. A plant: see corapuṣpī 3. A perfume. f. (-rī) Stealing, theft. E. cora a thief, affix aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caura (चौर).—i. e. curā, Theft ([Grammarians.]) + a, m. 1. A thief, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 118. 2. The robber of a heart; in the title, caura-pañcāśikā, The fifty strophes of a robber of a heart.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caura (चौर).—[masculine] ī [feminine] thief, robber.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caura (चौर):—mfn. (√cur) thievish, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan ii, 170] (= cora [gana] prajñādi; [gana] chattrādi) a thief. robber, [Manu-smṛti iv, viii, xi] (ifc.), [Harivaṃśa] etc.

2) a dishonest or unfair dealer, usurper, [Pañcatantra i, 8, 11/12 and 18/19] (also in [compound] translatable as [adjective (cf. [masculine, feminine and neuter; or adjective])])

3) (ifc. e.g. kavi-, ‘a plagiarist’), [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi 114]

4) a (heart-) captivator, [Harivaṃśa 7125; 9981 and 9994]

5) the perfume Coraka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) ‘plagiarist’, Name of a poet (cf. cora), [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati]

7) [plural] Name of a family, [Pravara texts i, 7] ([Kātyāyana] and, [Viśvanātha daivajña])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caura (चौर):—[(raḥ-rī)] 1. m. 3. f. A thief. f. Theft; a grass; a perfume.

[Sanskrit to German]

Caura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Caurā (चौरा) [Also spelled chaura]:—(nm) an altar; a raised platform forming part of a religious or ritualistic installation.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Caura (चौर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Catura.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caura (ಚೌರ):—

1) [noun] the act of cutting, dressing, shaving or trimming of the hair of the head or beards.

2) [noun] (fig.) a losing of money (by way of unnecessary or wasteful expenditure).

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Caura (ಚೌರ):—

1) [noun] a fan made of the long hair of yak (Bos grunniens).

2) [noun] the profession of fanning in a royal court.

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Caurā (ಚೌರಾ):—[noun] the middle-sized tree Erinocarpus nimmoanus of Tiliaceae family, with yellow flowers and fibrous bark.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Caura (चौर):—n. 1. a grassland; meadow; 2. a land;

2) Caura (चौर):—n. meadow; an open grassy space;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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