Caturvidha, Catur-vidha: 16 definitions

Introduction:

Caturvidha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chaturvidha.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध) refers to the “four types of living beings”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess said: “[...] That great power (mahat) is Viṣṇu and (its) form is energy (śaktibimba) that abides threefold. [...] Satisfaction (of all desires is attained) by means of that nectar and there is no rebirth. I am she who is threefold as emanation, persistence and withdrawal. I pervade the entire universe and the four types of living beings [i.e., caturvidha]. Why do you praise (me)? Why do you meditate on me? Who else apart from me has authority? Who are you (heralded thus) with hymns and words (of praise)?”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Caturvidha (चतुर्विध) refers to the “four kinds (of musical instruments)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.51 (“The resuscitation of Kāma”).—Accordingly, after the Gods spoke to Kāma: “[...] Śiva according to the conventions of the world performed the customary rites. Taking leave of Menā and the mountain He came to the audience hall. O sage, there was great jubilation then. Sounds of Vedic chants rose up. People played on the four kinds (caturvidha) of musical instruments. [...]”.

2) Caturvidha (चतुर्विध) refers to the “fourfold forms” (of Śiva), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.2 (“The Prayer of the gods).—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Śiva: “[...] Obeisance to Thee delighted with Vedic conduct, to the one fond of praiseworthy conduct; to the one who has fourfold forms (caturvidha-svarūpa) and the forms of aquatic and terrestrial beings. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Caturvidhā (चतुर्विधा) refers to “four states (of mind)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [These] four states (caturvidhā) of mind should be known by the wise: disintegrated, coming and going, integrated and absorbed. The disintegrated [mind] is said to be Tamasic, the coming and going [mind], Rajasic, the integrated [mind], Sattvic and the absorbed [mind] is beyond [these] qualities. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध) refers to the “four kinds” (of instrumental music), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] It has been said that there are eighteen addictions. These are the outcome of the desire for earthly enjovments. [...] In works on music, instrumental music said to be of four kinds (caturvidha), such as tata or stringed instruments, and so forth. The object of dancing and instrumental music is the same as that of vocal music. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध) refers to the “fourfold division (of meditation)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Now the fourfold division (caturvidha). It is as follows: A detailed definition of meditation which is considered as fourfold by the lords of mendicants (i.e. the Jinas) whose delusion is destroyed [and] who are familiar with meditation [is] in the Pūrva collection and the other Aṅgas. Nowadays no-one is capable of describing even a hundredth part of that (i.e. the detailed meditation). Therefore, the very well-known meaning which is only a hint is described here”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caturvidha (चतुर्विध).—a (S) Of four kinds, sorts, ways. Hence Of all kinds or sorts.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caturvidha (चतुर्विध).—a Of four kinds, sorts, ways. Hence of all kinds or sorts.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध).—a. of four sorts or kinds, four-fold.

Caturvidha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and vidha (विध).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध).—mfn.

(-dhaḥ-dhā-dhaṃ) Of four sorts or kinds, in four ways. E. catur, and vidha kind.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturvidhā (चतुर्विधा).—adj. quadruple, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 12.

Caturvidhā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and vidhā (विधा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध).—[adjective] fourfold; [neuter] [adverb]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध):—[=catur-vidha] [from catur > catasṛ] mfn. (cat) fourfold, of 4 sorts or kinds, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa vii; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturvidha (चतुर्विध):—[catur-vidha] (dhaḥ-dhā-dhaṃ) a. Four-fold.

[Sanskrit to German]

Caturvidha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturvidha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caturvidha (ಚತುರ್ವಿಧ):—[adjective] of four

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Caturvidha (ಚತುರ್ವಿಧ):—[noun] (pl.) four

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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