Carama, Caramã: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Carama means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Charama.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Carama (चरम) refers to the “ultimate (aim of a man)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “If it is exceedingly desired to avoid descending into hell or solely to obtain the great power of the lord of the 30 gods, if the ultimate aim of a man (carama-pumartha) is desirable, then, pray, what else is to be spoken of? You must perform the doctrine. [Thus ends the reflection on] the doctrine”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

carama (चरम).—a (S) Last, ultimate, final. caramakāla The last time or moment, esp. the hour of death; carama- kōṭi The last resource; caramāvayava The last or concluding part; caramāvasthā The last stage or state; caramagati Final emancipation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

carama (चरम).—a Last, ultimate, final. carama kāla The last time or moment, esp. the hour of death. caramāvasthā The last stage or state. carama gati Final emancipation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Carama (चरम).—a. [car-amac Uṇādi-sūtra 5.69]

1) Last, ultimate, final; चरमा क्रिया (caramā kriyā) 'the final or funeral ceremony.'

2) Posterior, back; पृष्ठं तु चरभं तनोः (pṛṣṭhaṃ tu carabhaṃ tanoḥ) Ak.

3) Old (as age).

4) Outermost.

5) Western, west.

6) Lowest, least.

7) Western; बृसीं चरमशैर्षिकीम् (bṛsīṃ caramaśairṣikīm) Rām.13.1.3.

-mam ind. At last; at the end.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Carama (चरम).—nt., a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7915 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha; Tibetan mthaḥ ḥbyam); Gaṇḍavyūha 106.16 (follows caraṇa; but omitted in Gaṇḍavyūha 133.26).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carama (चरम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Last, ultimate, final. 2. West, western. car to go, amac Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carama (चरम).— (cf. cara and cira), adj., f. , Last, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 4, 12. ºmam, adv. At last, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 194.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carama (चरम).—[adjective] the last, final, ultimate, extreme, lowest, least.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Carama (चरम):—m([nominative case] [plural] me, or mās, [Pāṇini 1-1, 33])f(ā)n. (in [compound] [Pāṇini 2-1, 58]) last, ultimate, final, [Ṛg-veda vii, 59, 3; viii, 20, 14; Taittirīya-saṃhitā i, v; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc. (mā kriyā, ‘the [final id est.] funeral ceremony’ [Mahābhārata iv, 834])

2) the outermost (first or last, opposed to the middle one), [Ṛg-veda viii, 61, 15]

3) later, [Kapila’s Sāṃkhya-pravacana i, 72]

4) (maṃ kiṃ, ‘what more?’ [Prasannarāghava v, 3/4])

5) ‘western’, in [compound]

6) lowest, least, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) a particular high number, [Buddhist literature; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carama (चरम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Last; west.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Carama (चरम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Carama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Carama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Carama (चरम) [Also spelled charam]:—(a) absolute; ultimate; last, final; extreme: —[lakṣya] ultimate aim; —[sīmā] extreme; extreme limit.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Carama (चरम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Carama.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Carama (ಚರಮ):—

1) [adjective] last; ultimate; final.

2) [adjective] lowest; least; most inferior.

3) [adjective] belonging to, coming from the west; western.

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Carama (ಚರಮ):—

1) [noun] that which is situated at the end.

2) [noun] the last point (either in space or time); the end.

3) [noun] the time or period following an event.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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