Carama, Caramã: 17 definitions
Carama means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Charama.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Carama (चरम) refers to the “ultimate (aim of a man)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “If it is exceedingly desired to avoid descending into hell or solely to obtain the great power of the lord of the 30 gods, if the ultimate aim of a man (carama-pumartha) is desirable, then, pray, what else is to be spoken of? You must perform the doctrine. [Thus ends the reflection on] the doctrine”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
carama (चरम).—a (S) Last, ultimate, final. caramakāla The last time or moment, esp. the hour of death; carama- kōṭi The last resource; caramāvayava The last or concluding part; caramāvasthā The last stage or state; caramagati Final emancipation.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
carama (चरम).—a Last, ultimate, final. carama kāla The last time or moment, esp. the hour of death. caramāvasthā The last stage or state. carama gati Final emancipation.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Carama (चरम).—a. [car-amac Uṇādi-sūtra 5.69]
1) Last, ultimate, final; चरमा क्रिया (caramā kriyā) 'the final or funeral ceremony.'
2) Posterior, back; पृष्ठं तु चरभं तनोः (pṛṣṭhaṃ tu carabhaṃ tanoḥ) Ak.
3) Old (as age).
5) Western, west.
6) Lowest, least.
7) Western; बृसीं चरमशैर्षिकीम् (bṛsīṃ caramaśairṣikīm) Rām.13.1.3.
-mam ind. At last; at the end.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Carama (चरम).—nt., a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7915 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha; Tibetan mthaḥ ḥbyam); Gaṇḍavyūha 106.16 (follows caraṇa; but omitted in Gaṇḍavyūha 133.26).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Last, ultimate, final. 2. West, western. car to go, amac Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Carama (चरम).— (cf. cara and cira), adj., f. mā, Last, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 4, 12. ºmam, adv. At last, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 194.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Carama (चरम).—[adjective] the last, final, ultimate, extreme, lowest, least.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Carama (चरम):—m([nominative case] [plural] me, or mās, [Pāṇini 1-1, 33])f(ā)n. (in [compound] [Pāṇini 2-1, 58]) last, ultimate, final, [Ṛg-veda vii, 59, 3; viii, 20, 14; Taittirīya-saṃhitā i, v; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc. (mā kriyā, ‘the [final id est.] funeral ceremony’ [Mahābhārata iv, 834])
2) the outermost (first or last, opposed to the middle one), [Ṛg-veda viii, 61, 15]
3) later, [Kapila’s Sāṃkhya-pravacana i, 72]
4) (maṃ kiṃ, ‘what more?’ [Prasannarāghava v, 3/4])
5) ‘western’, in [compound]
6) lowest, least, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) a particular high number, [Buddhist literature; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Carama (चरम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Last; west.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Carama (चरम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Carama.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Carama (चरम) [Also spelled charam]:—(a) absolute; ultimate; last, final; extreme: —[lakṣya] ultimate aim; —[sīmā] extreme; extreme limit.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
Carama (चरम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Carama.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] last; ultimate; final.
2) [adjective] lowest; least; most inferior.
3) [adjective] belonging to, coming from the west; western.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] that which is situated at the end.
2) [noun] the last point (either in space or time); the end.
3) [noun] the time or period following an event.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+28): Caramabhavika, Caramacala, Caramaccha, Caramadaihika, Caramadarsha, Caramadeha, Caramadehadhara, Caramadehadhari, Caramadhyana, Caramadhyastha, Caramadri, Caramagiri, Caramagita, Caramagite, Caramaja, Caramajnana, Caramakala, Caramakalyana, Caramakshara, Caramakshmabhrit.
Full-text (+9): Caramakshmabhrit, Caramacala, Caramadri, Shairshika, Caramakala, Caramashairshika, Caramavayas, Caramavastha, Carima, Acarama, Caramagiri, Caramabhavika, Acaramavayas, Caramatas, Caramavaiyakarana, Caramya, Caramalaya, Caramashayana, Caramaja, Caramy.
Search found 8 books and stories containing Carama, Caramã; (plurals include: Caramas, Caramãs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Mundaka Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)