Wisdom Library Logo

Cātur, aka: Catur; 2 Definition(s)


Cātur means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. Check out some of the following descriptions and leave a comment if you want to add your own contribution to this article.

The Sanskrit term Cātur can be transliterated into English as Catur, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Pāñcarātra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Four (catur) is the number of the earth, and represents the fulfilment of manifestations in all the spheres of existence. Thus theyrepresent all the following;

  1. The cardinal directions; indicating that the Lord is all pervading and has perfect dominion over all the directions.
  2. The Yajña-kuṇḍa (fire pit); the Lord is known as Yajña Purusha, he is the sole enjoyer of the sacrifices as well as being the sacrifice itself, and assuch his arms represent the four Vedic kuṇḍas (gārhapatya, āhavaniya, avasathya, sabhya).
  3. The four Vedas which are the sacred Revelation namely Rik, Yajus, Sama and Atharvana.
  4. The four divisions of society; intellectuals, administrators, entrepreneurs, and workers.
  5. The four stages of life; student, householder, retirement and renunciate.
  6. The four levels of consciousness; waking (jāgrata), dream (svapna), sub-consciousness (suṣupti) and transcendental consciousness (turiya).
  7. The four types of devotees; distressed, inquirer, the opportunist and the sage.
  8. The four functional manifestations (vyuhas). Vasudeva, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, Sankarshana.
  9. The four essential components of dharma; truth (satya), austerity (tapa), compassion (dayā), and charity (Dāna).
  10. The four aims of human endeavor (purushārthas); pleasure (kāma), prosperity (artha), righteousness (dharma) and liberation (mokṣa)
  11. The four types of liberation (mukti), communion (sāyujya), association (sārūpya),contiguity (sāmīpya), collocation (sālokya).
  12. The four ages of man. (yugas) Satya, Treta, Dvapara, Kali.
  13. four types of birth—gods (deva), humans (manushya), animals (tiryak) and plants (sthāvaram).
  14. The four types of Spiritual Paths or Yogas:—jñāna, karma, bhakti and śaranāgati
  15. The four types of differentiation among all existing things—genus (jāti), form (rūpa), nature (svabhāva) and knowledge (jñāna).
  16. The four qualities of all manifested beings: category (jāti), attributes (guna), function (kriya), relationship (sambandha).
Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama

about this context:

Pāñcarātra (पाञ्चरात्र, pancaratra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Nārāyaṇa is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaiṣnavism, the Pāñcarātra literature includes various Āgamas and tantras incorporating many Vaiṣnava philosophies.

In Buddhism


Cātur°, (and cātu°) (see catur) consisting of four. Only in cpds. viz.

—(r)anta (adj.) “of four ends, " i.e. covering or belonging to the 4 points of the compass, all-encircling, Ep. of the earth: J. II, 343 (paṭhavī); IV, 309 (mahī) —(n-m.) one who rules over the 4 points; i.e. over the whole world (of a Cakkavattin) D. I, 88 (cp. DA. I, 249); II, 16; Sn. 552. See also Sp. AvS. II, 111, n. 2; —kummāsa sour gruel with four ingredients VvA. 308; —(d)dasī (f.) (to catuddasa fourteen) the 14th day of the lunar half month A. I, 144. PvA. 55; VvA. 71, 99, 129. With pancadasī, aṭṭhamī & pāṭihāriyapakkha at Sn. 402; Vv 155. °dasika belonging to the 14th day at Vin. IV, 315; —(d)disa (adj.) belonging to, or comprising the four quarters, appld to a man of humanitarian mind Sn. 42 (“showing universal love, " see Nd2 239); cp. RV X. 136. Esp. appld to the bhikkhu-saṅgha “the universal congregation of bhikkhus" Vin I 305; II, 147; D. I, 145; J. I, 93; Pv. II, 28; III, 214 (expld PvA. 185 by catūhi disāhi āgata-bhikkhu-saṅgha). Cp. AvŚ I. 266; II, 109; —(d)dīpa of four continents: rājā Th. 2, 486; cp. M Vastu I. 108, 114; —(d)dīpaka sweeping over the whole earth (of a storm) Vin. I, 290, cp. J. IV, 314 & AvŚ I. 258; —(b)bedā (pl.) the four Vedas Miln. 3; —māsin of 4 months; f. °inī Vin. I, 155; D. I, 47; M. III, 79; DA. I, 139, cp. komudī; —(m)mahāpatha the place where 4 roads cross, a crossroad D. I, 102, 194=243; M. I, 124; III, 91; cp. catu°. —(m)mahābhūtika consisting of the 4 great elements (of kāya) D. I, 34, 55, 186, 195; S. II, 94 sq. ; Miln. 379; cp. Av. Ś II. 191 & Sk. cāṭurbhautika; —(m)mahārājikā (pl.) (sc. devā) the retinue of the Four Kings, inhabiting the lowest of the 6 devalokas Vin. I, 12; III, 18; D. I, 215; Nd2 307 (under devā); J. II, 311 (deva-loka); —yāma (saṃvara) fourfold restraint (see yāma) D. I, 57, 58 (cp. DA. I, 167); III, 48 sq. ; S. I, 66; M. I, 377; Vism. 410. Cp. Dial. I. 75 n1. (Page 264)

— or —

Catur, catu° in composition (Vedic catvārah (m.) catvāri (nt.) fr. *qǔetuor, *qǔetur=Gr. tέttares (hom. piζurQs), Lat. quattuor, Goth. fidwōr, Ohg. fior, Ags fēower, E. four; catasras (f.) fr. *qǔ(e)tru, cp. tisras. Also as adv. catur fr. *quetrus=Lat. quater & quadru°) base of numeral four; 1. As num. adj. Nom. & Acc. m. cattāro (Dh. 109; J. III, 51) and caturo (Sn. 84, 188), f. catasso (Sn. 1122), nt. cattāri (Sn. 227); Gen. m. catunnaṃ (Sn. p. 102), (f. catassannaṃ); Instr. catubbhi (Sn. 229), catūhi (Sn. 231) & catuhi; Loc. catūsu (J. I, 262) & catusu.—2. As num. adv. , catu° catur° in cpds. catuddasa (14), also through elision & reduction cuddasa PvA. 55, 283, etc., cp. also cātuddasī. Catuvīsati (24) Sn. 457; catusaṭṭhi (64) J. I, 50; II, 193; PvA. 74; caturāsīti (84) usually with vassa-sahassāni J. I, 137; II, 311; Pv IV. 77; DhA. II, 58; PvA. 9, 31, 254, etc. See also cattārīsa (40).

—(r)aṃsa (=caturassa, having four edges, four-edged Dhs. 617; PvA. 189 (read °sobhitāya); —(r)aṅga (consisting of) four limbs or divisions, fourfold M. I, 77; J. I, 390; II, 190, 192; VI, 169 (uposatha, cp. aṭṭhaṅga); Dpvs. I, 6; Sdhp. 64; —(r)aṅgika=prec. Dhs. 147, 157, 397; KhA 85; Sdhp. 58; —(r)aṅgin (adj.) comprising four parts, f. °inī, of an army consisting of elephants, chariots, cavalry & infantry D. II, 190; J. II, 102, 104; Vism. 146; SnA 225, 353; DhA. IV, 144; cp. J. VI, 275; —(r)aṅgula (adj.) measuring 4 fingers, 4 fingers broad or wide, Vin. I, 46; S. II, 178; J. VI, 534; Th. 1, 1137; Vism. 124. —(r)aṅgulika=prec. Th. 2, 498 (-ThA, 290); —(r)anta see cāturQ; —(r)assa (catur+assa2) four-cornered, quadrangular, regular Vin. II, 310 (Bdhgh); J. IV, 46 (āvāṭa) 492 (sālā); V, 49; Pv. II, 119. Cp. caturaṃsa & next; —(r)assara (see last) with 4 sharp sides (of a hammer; °muggara) DhA. I, 126; —(r)âdhiṭṭhāna (adj.) one who has taken the four resolutions (see adhiṭṭhāna) M. III, 239; —(r)âpassena (adj.) endowed with the four apassena: lit. : reclining on four A. V, 29, 30; D. III, 269, 270; —ussada (catussada) full of four, endowed with 4 things, rich in four attributes J. IV, 309 (expld. p. 311 as having plenty of people, grain, wood & water); IV, 422=461 “with four pillows" (p. 422 has caturassada for caturussada, which latter is also to be preferred to catussada, unless this is a haplology). In the same connection occurs satt-ussada (full of people) D. I, 111 e.g. & Pv IV. 18 (see satta). The formation “cattussada" has probably been influenced by “sattussada"; —(k)kaṇṇa (& °ka) (a) with 4 corners Vin. II, 137; J. III, 255.—(b) “between four ears, " i.e. secret, of manta (counsel) J. VI, 391; —(k)kama walking with four (feet), quadruped Vv 648; Pv. I, 113; —kuṇḍika on all fours M. I, 79; A. III, 188; D. III, 6; Pv III, 27 (cp. PvA. 181); —koṇa four cornered, crossed, in °raccha cross road PvA. 24; —(k)khandha the four khandhas, viz. feeling, perception, synthesis & intellect (see khandha) DhsA. 345; —(g)guṇa fourfold, quadruple D. II, 135; S. I, 27; J. I, 213; VvA. 186; Sdhp. Q40; —cakka with four wheels S. I, 16=63 (said of the human body, see under cakka); —jāta of four sorts, viz. gandha (perfume) having four ingredients ThA. 72 (see next) —jāti of four kinds J. I, 265, V. 79; (gandha). These 4 ingredients of perfume are saffron, jasmine, Turkish (tarukkha) & Greek incense (yavana); —jātiya (& °jātika) in °gandha prec. J. III, 291; IV, 377; PvA. 127; Miln. 354; J. I, 178 (°ka); —(d)disā (pl.) the 4 quarters of the globe S. I, 167=Sn. p. 79; D. I, 251; may also be taken for Abl. sg. as adv. : in the 4 quarters Vin. I, 16, cp. Acc. catuddisaṃ D. II, 12; —(d)dīpika covering the 4 continents, of megha (a cloud) DhA. II, 95; —dvāra with 4 gates, of a house D. I, 102 (=DA. I, 270); of Avīciniraya It. 86; J. IV, 3; Pv. I, 1013; cp. Catudvāra Jātaka (No. 439; J. IV, 1 sq.); —nahuta ninety-four J. I, 25; VI, 486; —paccaya the four requisites (see paccaya) J. III, 273, °santosa contentment with °DhA. IV, 111; —paṇṇasa fiftyfour DhA. I, 4; —(p)patha a fourways J. IV, 460; —(p)pada (Sk. caturpād, Gr. tetrάpous, Lat. quadrupes) a quadruped Vin. II, 110; S. I, 6; A. V, 21; Sn. 603, 964; It. 87; J. I, 152; III, 82; —parivaṭṭa (cp. aṭṭha °adhideva-ñāṇadassana A. IV, 304) fourfold circle S. III, 59 sq. (pañcupādānakkhandhe). —parisā (f.) the fourfold assembly, scil. of male & female bhikkhus & upāsakas (cp. parisā) PvA. 11; —pala fourfold Vism. 339. —(p)pādaka (adj.) consisting of 4 padas, i.e. a sloka; f. °ikā (gāthā) a complete stanza or sloka Anvs p. 35; —pārisuddhasīla (nt.) the four precepts of purity J. III, 291; DhA. IV, 111;—(b)bidha (catur+vidha) fourfold ThA, 74; —(b)bipallāsa (catur+vipallāsa) the fourfold change (cp. Nett 85) Th+1, 1143; SnA 46; —byūha (catur+vyūha) arranged in 4 arrays (of hāra) Nett 3, 105; —bhāga the 4th part, a quarter Dh. 108; —bhūmika having 4 stories or stages (of citta or dhamma) DhA. I, 21; IV, 72; DhsA. 344, 345; cp. Vism. 493 (of indriya); —madhura (nt.) sweetness (syrup) of 4 (ingredients) DA. I, 136; ThA. 68; —mahāpatha a crossing on a high-road Vism. 235. —mahābhūtika consisting of the four great elements DhsA. 403; —(m)mahārājika: see cātum°; —māsa 4 months, a season PvA. 96; Dpvs. I, 24, 37 (cā°); see under māsa; —sacca the four truths or facts (see ariyasacca) DhA. III, 380; Miln. 334; (s)sāla (nt.) (catur+sāla) a square formed by 4 houses, in phrasc catuhi gabbhehi paṭimaṇḍitaṃ catussālaṃ kāretvā VvA. 220; DhA. III, 291; —’ha (catuha & catūha) 4 days; catuhena within 4 days S. II, 191; catūhapañcāha 4 or 5 days Vin. IV, 280.—See also cpds. with cātu°. (Page 261)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

about this context:

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Relevant definitions

Search found 17 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

1) Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with dance-hands (nṛttahasta);...
Catur-bhuja (‘The four arms’): The four arms represent the three fundamental qua...
Catuṣpattrī (चतुष्पत्त्री) is another name for Suniṣaṇṇaka, which is a Sanskrit word referri...
Caturdārikā (चतुर्दारिका) is the name of the fifth book of the Kathāsaritsāgara, written by ...
Caturvyavasita (चतुर्व्यवसित) refers to one of the ten kinds of yamaka, according to Nāṭyaśāstr...
Catur Maharaja Kayika
The four heavens of the four Deva Kings. It is the lowest of the six heavens of the Realm of De...
Āṅgika (आङ्गिक, “physical representation”) consists of the use of various gestur...
Aṃśa (अंश, “part”) refers to the “parts” (decorative mouldings) of a...
Yañña, (Vedic yajña, fr. yaj: see yajati. The metric reading in the Veda is sometimes yajana, ...
Yanna Sutta
Yañña, (Vedic yajña, fr. yaj: see yajati. The metric reading in the Veda is sometimes yajana, ...
Cuddasa, (contracted fr. catuddasa, Sk. caturdaśa, cp. catur) fourteen J.I, 71; VI, 8; Miln.1...
1) Assa, 5 3. sg. Pot. of asmi (see atthi). (Page 90)2) Assa, 4 is Gen. Dat. sg. of ayaṃ, this....
Assa Sutta
1) Assa, 5 3. sg. Pot. of asmi (see atthi). (Page 90)2) Assa, 4 is Gen. Dat. sg. of ayaṃ, this....
Caturvyavasitayamaka (चतुर्व्यवसितयमक).—One of the ten kinds of yamaka;—Description of caturvya...
Aṅgin, (adj.) limbed, having limbs or parts, — fold, see catur° & pacc° (under aṅga-paccaṅgin)....

Relevant text

Search found 64 books containing Cātur or Catur. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the 20 most relevant articles:

- Was this explanation helpufll? Leave a comment:

Make this page a better place for research and define the term yourself in your own words.

You have to be a member in order to post comments. Click here to login or click here to become a member.