Bhojana: 29 definitions


Bhojana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “(perpetual) diet”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.20 (“The story of the submarine fire”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā said to the Ocean: “[...] This fury of lord Śiva, now in the form of a mare, you will bear till the final dissolution of all living beings. O lord of rivers, when I shall come and stay here, you shall release it. This is Śiva’s wonderful fire of fury. His perpetual diet [i.e., bhojana] shall consist of your waters. This shall be preserved by you with effort lest it should go down. Thus requested by me, the ocean agreed. None else could have grasped Śiva’s fire of fury thus. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Bhojana (भोजन).—Mt. of Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 21.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to a food that is to be eaten at the end of a ritual according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.89-90.—“After pūjā (worshiping), homa (fire-offering), japa (reciting), and dhyāna (meditating) for the deity, one should eat soft, warm, and well-cooked (or ripened) food in small portions. One should abandon spoiled food and poor porridge. The self-disciplined man should eat approved food. Then, one will enjoy the siddhi”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to the “food (of the king)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.88-89ab, while describing the ritual that protect the king and his kingdom]—“Enemies (hiṃsaka) [i.e., harmful spirits] do [the king] no harm [when the Mantrin] gives him a flower or betel-leaf that is consecrated by the mantra. The mantravid should consecrate [the king’s] food (bhojana) with this mantra. Eating [the food while imagining himself situated] in the middle of two moons, he consumes the nectar. The king stays on earth, liberated from all disease”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to a “picnic (in the forest)”, according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 3.20 (“The Śikṣāṣṭaka Prayers”).—Accordingly, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said said: “[...] Now let me repeat all the pastimes of the Antya-līlā, for if I do so I shall taste the pastimes again. [...] In the Eighteenth Chapter is an account of how the Lord fell into the ocean and in ecstasy saw in a dream the pastimes of a water fight between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs. In that dream, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw Kṛṣṇa's picnic (bhojana) in the forest. As Lord Caitanya floated in the sea, a fisherman caught Him, and then the Lord returned to His own residence. All this is recounted in the Eighteenth Chapter. [...]”.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “food”, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(The disciple) should behave well for a period of eight, five or three years. Otherwise initiation should not be given to him (as) he (would not achieve) success in the Kula teachings. [...]  The evil soul who gets angry with (his) teacher or talks back (disrespectfully) is certainly destroyed as is rotten food (bhojanaajīrṇe bhojanaṃ yathā). The disciple must never be angry with his teacher whether in speech, mind or with the actions of (his) body. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Bhojana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “food”, according to the Svabodhodayamañjarī (28): “Whatever desire arises for sensory objects such as food (bhojana) and the like, one should satisfy it as much as one can. [Thus,] one becomes complete and free from sense objects”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “lunch (food)”, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, one of the treatments is mentioned as follows: “A paste of Punarnāva and Abhayā, made with buttermilk, is to be drunk and the same is to be applied as lepa. Fumigation must be carried out with Abhayā and jaggery. Lunch (bhojana) must be had with buttermilk”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

(Food (solid and liquid)).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to the “eating (at the proper or wrong time)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “[If time does not exist, why is it permissible ‘to eat at the proper time’ (kāla-bhojana) and forbidden ‘to eat at the wrong time’ (akāla-bhojana)? Those are common disciplines (śīla)!]—[Answer:]—[...] Besides, the disciplines imposed by the Vinaya are true for the world without having the nature of an absolute, real dharma, for the Ātman and the dharmas do not really exist. But in order to moderate the impatience of the community, in order to protect the Buddhist doctrine and ensure its longevity, in order to regulate the disciples’ rituals, the Bhagavats of the triple world have set up prohibitions the subject of which one should not question whether it is true or conventional, what is associated or dissociated, what is a dharma with such and such a characteristic or without that characteristic. That is why no objection can be made there.”

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “food”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as the Lord said to Brahmā Prabhāvyūha: “[...] (26) Further, ‘the root of good’ is to touch the evenness of the sole of the foot, ‘merit’ is to adorn the characteristics of a great man and the marks of beauty, and ‘knowledge’ is not to see the top of the head. (27) Further, ‘the root of good’ is to adorn the Buddha-fields, ‘merit’ is to enjoy food and drink (pāna-bhojana) mentally, and ‘knowledge’ is to be produced in intelligent beings. [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “(white) foods” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān teaches an offering manual]: “A wax Garuḍa should be made. [...] Having placed it at a high place [covered] with cloths of various kinds [and colours], the mantra should be recited day and night a thousand times. If there is no body-energy, one should take white foods (śukla-bhojana). Besides one should bathe and it should be thus [continued to be] practised. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Bhojana (भोजन) refers to “food”, according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [while describing pratiṣṭhā in chapter 6]—“[The Ācārya should] also entertain spectators with tāmbūla etc. [In addition,] food (bhojana) and a bali should be offered for [their] good fortune”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhojana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

bhojana : (nt.) food; meal.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Bhojana, (nt.) (fr. bhuñjati) food, meal, nourishment in general J. II, 218; IV, 103, 173; J. I, 178; IV, 223; Sn. 102, 128, 242, 366, 667; Dh. 7, 70; Pug. 21, 55; Miln. 370; Vism. 69, 106; Sdhp. 52, 388, 407. Some similes with bhojana see J. P. T. S. 1907, 119.—tika° food allowed for a triad (of reasons) Vin. II, 196. dub° having little or bad food J. II, 368; DhA. IV, 8. paṇīta° choice & plentiful meals Vin. IV, 88. sabhojane kule in the family in which a bhikkhu has received food Vin. IV, 94.—bhojane mattaññu(tā) knowing proper measure in eating (& abstr.); eating within bounds, one of the 4 restricttions of moral life S. II, 218; A. I, 113 sq. ; Nd1 483. ‹-› 5 bhojanāni or meals are given at Vin. IV, 75, viz. niccabhatta°, salākabhatta°, pakkhikaṃ, uposathikaṃ, pāṭipadikaṃ.—As part of the regulations concerning food, hours of eating etc. in the Saṅgha there is a distinction ascribed to the Buddha between gaṇabhojanaṃ, parampara-bhojanaṃ, atirittabhojanaṃ, anatirittabhojanaṃ mentioned at Kvu II. 552; see Vin. IV, 71, 77. All these ways of taking food are forbidden under ordinary circumstances, but allowed in the case of illness (gilāna-samaye), when robes are given to the Bhikkhus (cīvarasamaye) and several other occasions, as enumerated at Vin. IV, 74.—The distinction is made as follows: gaṇabhojanaṃ said when 4 bhikkhus are invited to partake together of one of the five foods; or food prepared as a joint meal Vin. IV, 74; cp. II. 196; V, 128, 135; paramparabhojanaṃ said when a bhikkhu, invited to partake of one of the 5 foods, first takes one and then another Vin. IV, 78; atirittabhojanaṃ is food left over from that provided for a sick person, or too great a quantity offered on one occasion to bhikkhus (in this case permitted to be eaten) Vin. IV, 82; anatirittabhojanaṃ is food that is not left over & is accepted & eaten by a bhikkhu without inquiry Vin. IV, 84.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhōjana (भोजन).—n (S) Making a meal. Ex. of comp. bhōjanakharca Table-expenses; bhōjanavēḷa Meal-time; brāhmaṇabhōjana Entertainment given to Brahmans; iṣṭabhōjana, āmrabhōjana, pathyabhōjana &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bhōjana (भोजन).—n Making a meal. bhōjanakharca Table-expenses.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन).—a. भुज्-ल्यु ल्युट् वा (bhuj-lyu lyuṭ vā)]

1) Feeding, nourishing, giving to eat.

2) Voracious; (rākṣasī) अङ्गारकेति विख्याता छायामाक्षिप्य भोजनी (aṅgāraketi vikhyātā chāyāmākṣipya bhojanī) Rām.4.41.26.

-naḥ 1 Name of Viṣṇu.

2) Of Śiva.

-nam 1 Eating, eating food; taking one's meals; अजीर्णे भोजनं विषम् (ajīrṇe bhojanaṃ viṣam).

2) Food.

3) Giving (food) to eat, feeding.

4) Using, enjoying.

5) Any object of enjoyment.

6) That which is enjoyed; सहानुजैः प्रत्यवरुद्ध- भोजनः (sahānujaiḥ pratyavaruddha- bhojanaḥ) Bhāgavata 1.1.1.

7) Property, wealth, possessions.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन).—(compare the cognate Sanskrit, [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] bhoga, in this meaning; normally bhojana only food, in Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]), (carnal) enjoyment, sexual intercourse; only in phrase (or [compound]) sabhojana kula, a household in which sexual intercourse is going on or about to be practised; in such a house a monk is forbidden to ‘intrude’ (see anu- praskandati) and sit or stand: [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 511.8 (a Chin. version interprets as a house where man and wife engage, sc. habitually or excessively, in sexual intercourse); Mahāvyutpatti 8465 sabhojanakula-niṣadyā, and 8466 °sthānam (Tibetan ñal po byed pa[r] śom paḥi khyim na, in a house where pre- parations are being made to perform sexual intercourse); so in Pali Vin. iv.95.7, interpreted in this way by both the old and the later comms.; modern interpreters con- sistently refuse to admit this meaning, but the agreement of northern and southern tradition forbids anything else, and the cognate bhoga has the same meaning

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Food. 2. Eating. 3. Any object of enjoyment. 4. Wealth. E. bhuj to eat, aff. lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन).—i. e. 2. bhuj + ana, n. 1. Enjoying, [Pañcatantra] 61, 22. 2. Eating, [Pañcatantra] 245, 22. 3. Food, [Pañcatantra] 138, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन).—[adjective] feeding, nourishing. [masculine] enjoying, eating, feeding, nourishing, meal, food, wealth, possession, pleasure, joy; adj. —° feeding on or serving as food for.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhojana (भोजन):—[from bhoga] mf(ī)n. feeding, giving to eat (said of Śiva), [Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] voracious, [Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] n. the act of enjoying, using, [Ṛg-veda]

5) [v.s. ...] the act of eating (exceptionally with [accusative] of object), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

6) [v.s. ...] n. a meal, food, [ib.] (ifc. f(ā). , ‘feeding on’, ‘affording anything as food’, ‘serving as food for’; tridvy-eka-bhojana mfn. ‘taking food every 3rd day, every 2nd day and every day’)

7) [v.s. ...] n. anything enjoyed or used, property, possession, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska]

8) [v.s. ...] enjoyment, any object of enj° or the pleasure caused by it, [Ṛg-veda]

9) [v.s. ...] ([from] [Causal]) the act of giving to eat, feeding, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Rāmāyaṇa; Manu-smṛti] ([varia lectio])

10) [v.s. ...] dressing food, cooking, [Nalopākhyāna]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Food; eating.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Bhojana (भोजन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kammaṇa, Caḍḍaṇa, Camaḍhaṇa, Jimaṇa, Bhuṃjaṇa, Bhoaṇa, Samāṇaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Bhojana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhojana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Bhojana (भोजन) [Also spelled bhojan]:—(nm) food, meals; diet; victuals; -[kāla] time for meals; ~[gṛha/śālā] dining room; -[nalī] the food pipe; -[bhaṭṭa] a glutton; -[yogya] eatable/edible, esculent; -[vyavasthā] boarding; messing arrangements; -[sāmagrī] eatables, victuals; —[pānā] (said out of deference) to have food at.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Bhōjana (ಭೋಜನ):—

1) [noun] the act of eating food.

2) [noun] the food served as a main meal of the day, as a lunch or dinner.

3) [noun] derivation of satisfaction by using an object.

4) [noun] the act of serving food.

5) [noun] ಭೋಜನಮಾಡು [bhojanamadu] bhōjana māḍu to have one’s meal.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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