Bhartrihari, Bhartṛhari, Bharthari, Bhartri-hari: 15 definitions


Bhartrihari means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Bhartṛhari can be transliterated into English as Bhartrhari or Bhartrihari, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous next»] — Bhartrihari in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि).—A very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. cf. शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् । वाक्यपदीयम् (śabdārthasaṃbandhoyaṃ prakaraṇam | vākyapadīyam) Kas. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (vyakarana)

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि) (5th century CE) is the name of an author of grammatical works, following in succession of Pāṇini (7th century BCE): author of the Aṣṭādhyāyī dealing with vyākaraṇa (grammar): the science of analysis of sentences and words. After Pāini, there was a succession of thinkers of language, grammar and philosophy of language, viz., Bhartṛhari, whose Vākyapadīya is a celebrated work of philosophy of language and grammar.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Bhartrihari in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि).—A famous Sanskrit poet. Birth. He was the son of Vidyāsāgara, a great brahmin scholar, who lived in Pāṭalīputra. There is a legend about the birth of Bhartṛhari in Uttara Bhārata. (See full article at Story of Bhartṛhari from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Bhartrihari in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि; also Bhartrihari; fl. c. 5th century CE) is a Sanskrit author who is likely to have written two influential Sanskrit texts:

  1. the Vākyapadīya, on Sanskrit grammar and linguistic philosophy, a foundational text of the Sphoṭa theory in the Indian grammatical tradition, and
  2. the Śatakatraya, a work of Sanskrit poetry, comprising three collections of about 100 stanzas each.

Bhartṛhari is of the śabda-advaita "speech monistic" school which identifies language and cognition. According to George Cardona, "Vākyapadīya is considered to be the major Indian work of its time on grammar, semantics and philosophy."

2) The name Bhrartrihari is also sometimes associated with Bhartrihari traya Shataka, the legendary king of Ujjaini in the 1st century.

Source: Textetc: Bhartrihari

Bhartrihari wrote three collections or shatakas of poems. The Srngara gives us little pictures of love and love-making. The Vairagya describes a gradual withdrawal from worldly matters, and the Niti deals with ethical conduct. Topics not very conducive to poetry, perhaps, yet Bhartrihari shows Sanskrit at its best: profound, pithy and beautifully clear. Each of the shatakahs contains one hundred poems, generally just of four lines, sometimes two. But the content of each poem may be as wide as that of fourteen lines in the English sonnet, and can print out in more when all nuances are translated. The poems are entertaining, observant, wry and often deeply reflective. Kalidasa is the greater artist, but epic poetry is not dramatic in a western sense: stereotyped characters, unlikely plots, long digressions that hold up the story, verbal cleverness, and a jewelled and increasingly elaborate style, with sentences that sometime stretch over several pages.

Source: Brill: The Saṃbandha-Samuddeśa (Chapter on Relation)

In the history of the Indian grammatical tradition, Bhartṛhari (about fifth century C.E.) is the fourth great grammarian - after Pāṇini, Kātyāyana and Patañjali - and the first to make the philosophical aspects of language and grammar the main subject of an independent work.

India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: Teachers, Saints and Sages

Bhartrihari (or Bhartrinath) refers to one of the “nine saints” (Navnath) according to the translator of Nisargadatta Maharaj's converstaions and Suamitra Mullarpattan.—These nine saints form the basis of the Navnath Sampradaya (the lineage of the nine Gurus). They are worshipped collectively as well as individually. [...] The nine teachers [e.g., Bhartrihari] are considered representative of great teachers in this tradition or Parampara tradition—a succession of Teachers (Gurus) and Disciples (Shishyasa) in Indian-origin religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism.

Source: Wikipedia: India History

Bharatthari (=Jogi Sant Bharthari) is the hero of many folk stories in North India. He was the ruler of Ujjain, before renouncing the world and abdicating in the favor of his younger brother Vikramaditya. Stories of Bharthari and his nephew King Gopi Chand of Bengal, who are considered Nath panth yogis, abound in the Indian folklore of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. Many of the details about the lives of Bharthari and his brother Vikramaditya are from the tales of Baital Pachisi (Twenty five tales of Baital), translated as 'Vikram and The Vampire'.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhartrihari in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि).—Name of a celebrated author to whom are ascribed the three Śatakas (śṛṅgāra, nīti and vairāgya) and also वाक्यपदीय (vākyapadīya) and भट्टि- काव्य (bhaṭṭi- kāvya).

Derivable forms: bhartṛhariḥ (भर्तृहरिः).

Bhartṛhari is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms bhartṛ and hari (हरि).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि).—[bhartṛ-hari], m. The name of a prince and poet.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि).—[masculine] [Name] of an author.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—shortened hari Mahābhāṣyadīpikā. Mahābhāṣyatripadīvyākhyāna. Vākyapadīya.
—Kārikāḥ. Rādh. 9. Oppert. 4267.
—[commentary] by Helārāja K. 90. Śataka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhartṛhari (भर्तृहरि):—[=bhartṛ-hari] [from bhartṛ > bhara] m. Name of a well-known poet and grammarian (of the 7th century A.D.; author of 300 moral, political, and religious maxims comprised in 3 Śatakas, and of the Vākyapadīya and other gram. works., and according to some also of the Bhaṭṭi-kāvya)

[Sanskrit to German]

Bhartrihari in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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