Avartaka, Āvartaka, Āvartakā: 10 definitions
Avartaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Āvartaka (आवर्तक).—Clouds of the Pakṣaja class that rain copiously.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 22. 40; IV. 28. 63.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Āvartaka (आवर्तक) is another name for Āvarta: one of the thirty-three alaṃkāras (embellishments), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. These alaṃkāras, or, ‘embellishments of song’, depend upon the four types of varṇas, which refers to a specific order of musical notes (svara). They are attached to the songs of seven forms, although not generally used in the dhruvās.
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “āvartaka is eight kalās of four consecutive notes ascending and descending. It is also formed with two alternative notes. In that case four kalās will have ascending and descending notes”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Āvartaka (आवर्तक) or Āvantaka refers to a country identified with Avantī, belonging to “Dakṣiṇa or Dakṣiṇadeśa (southern division)” classified under the constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā represent the southern division consisting of [i.e., Āvartaka] [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Āvartaka (आवर्तक) refers to “personified cloud” and is the name of a cloud (megha) associated with Subhīṣaṇa: the southern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. The name for the cloud of the southern direction is sometimes given as Balāhaka. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These clouds (e.g., Āvartaka) are known as cloud-kings (megharāja) and have names that are associated with the loud noises of thunderclouds and the noise of rain, according to the Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 11.77. Their presence in the cremation grounds may be connected with the nāgas, for they are known to be responsible for the rain.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)
Āvartaka (आवर्तक) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya:—“All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and in other realms, [... the Āvartakas, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Āvartaka (आवर्तक).—a. [āvarta eva svārthe kan] Revolving again and again.
-kaḥ 1 Name of a form of cloud personified; जातं वंशे भुवनविदिते पुष्करावर्तकानाम् (jātaṃ vaṃśe bhuvanavidite puṣkarāvartakānām) Meghadūta 6; Kumārasambhava 2.5.
2) Depression above the eye-brows.
3) A whirlpool.
5) Revolution of the mind from the influence of the senses.
6) A curl of hair.
7) A sort of poisonous insect.
8) Name of a plant (Mar. ṭākaḷā);
-kī Name of a creeping plant (bṛhaddantī).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Āvartaka (आवर्तक):—[=ā-vartaka] [from ā-vṛt] m. a kind of venomous insect, [Suśruta]
2) [v.s. ...] Name of a form of cloud personified, [Kumāra-sambhava; Raghuvaṃśa]
3) [v.s. ...] a depression above the frontal ridge or over the eyebrows
4) [v.s. ...] whirlpool
5) [v.s. ...] revolution
6) [v.s. ...] excitement of the mind from the influence of the senses
7) [v.s. ...] a curl of hair
8) [=ā-var-taka] [from ā-vartaka > ā-vṛt] mfn. bringing back (?), [Buddha-carita ix, 6]
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
1) [adjective] repeating by itself; recurring.
2) [adjective] revolving; rotating; rotary.
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Āvartaka (ಆವರ್ತಕ):—[noun] that which causes another to revolve, rotate or oscillate; an oscillator.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Avartakadashamamsha, Avartakakala, Avartakakoshtaka.
Ends with (+11): Aditirthapravartaka, Andhakavartaka, Anupravartaka, Apavartaka, Apravartaka, Asamavartaka, Dakshinavartaka, Dharmacakrapravartaka, Dharmachakrapravartaka, Gotrapravartaka, Kakavartaka, Mallavartaka, Mantrapravartaka, Nanditavartaka, Paravartaka, Pravartaka, Punaravartaka, Pushkalavartaka, Pushkaravartaka, Rajanyavartaka.
Full-text: Pushkaravartaka, Avartadashamsha, Vyavartakata, Vyavartakatva, Punaravartaka, Udavartaka, Vyavarta, Balahaka, Vyavartaka, Jambumula, Subhishana, Avantaka, Sumeru, Varsha, Avarta.
Search found 6 books and stories containing Avartaka, Āvartaka, Āvar-taka, Avar-taka, Āvartakā; (plurals include: Avartakas, Āvartakas, takas, Āvartakās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 134 - Greatness of Puṣkarāvartakā (Puṣkara-āvartakā) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 7: Refusal to marry < [Chapter II - Vāsupūjyacaritra]
Appendix 3.2: new and rare words < [Appendices]
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter LXXXVII - Analecta of the celestial spheres < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
Chapter LXXVIII - Description of the universal ocean < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter LXXVI - The stridor of pushkaravarta clouds < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 6 - The incarnation of Nandīśvara < [Section 3 - Śatarudra-saṃhitā]
Chapter 22 - The dalliance of Śivā and Śiva on the Himālayas < [Section 2.2 - Rudra-saṃhitā (2): Satī-khaṇḍa]
Natyashastra (English) (by Bharata-muni)
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 5: Kalpasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)