Avartaka, Āvartaka, Āvartakā: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Avartaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Avartaka in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Āvartaka (आवर्तक).—Clouds of the Pakṣaja class that rain copiously.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 22. 40; IV. 28. 63.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Āvartaka (आवर्तक) is another name for Āvarta: one of the thirty-three alaṃkāras (embellishments), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. These alaṃkāras, or, ‘embellishments of song’, depend upon the four types of varṇas, which refers to a specific order of musical notes (svara). They are attached to the songs of seven forms, although not generally used in the dhruvās.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “āvartaka is eight kalās of four consecutive notes ascending and descending. It is also formed with two alternative notes. In that case four kalās will have ascending and descending notes”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Āvartaka (आवर्तक) refers to “personified cloud” and is the name of a cloud (megha) associated with Subhīṣaṇa: the southern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. The name for the cloud of the southern direction is sometimes given as Balāhaka. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These clouds (e.g., Āvartaka) are known as cloud-kings (megharāja) and have names that are associated with the loud noises of thunderclouds and the noise of rain, according to the Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 11.77. Their presence in the cremation grounds may be connected with the nāgas, for they are known to be responsible for the rain.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Āvartaka (आवर्तक) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya:—“All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and in other realms, [... the Āvartakas, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Āvartaka (आवर्तक).—a. [āvarta eva svārthe kan] Revolving again and again.

-kaḥ 1 Name of a form of cloud personified; जातं वंशे भुवनविदिते पुष्करावर्तकानाम् (jātaṃ vaṃśe bhuvanavidite puṣkarāvartakānām) Me.6; Ku.2.5.

2) Depression above the eye-brows.

3) A whirlpool.

4) Revolution.

5) Revolution of the mind from the influence of the senses.

6) A curl of hair.

7) A sort of poisonous insect.

8) Name of a plant (Mar. ṭākaḷā);

-kī Name of a creeping plant (bṛhaddantī).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Āvartaka (आवर्तक):—[=ā-vartaka] [from ā-vṛt] m. a kind of venomous insect, [Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a form of cloud personified, [Kumāra-sambhava; Raghuvaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] a depression above the frontal ridge or over the eyebrows

4) [v.s. ...] whirlpool

5) [v.s. ...] revolution

6) [v.s. ...] excitement of the mind from the influence of the senses

7) [v.s. ...] a curl of hair

8) [=ā-var-taka] [from ā-vartaka > ā-vṛt] mfn. bringing back (?), [Buddha-carita ix, 6]

[Sanskrit to German]

Avartaka in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Āvartaka (ಆವರ್ತಕ):—

1) [adjective] repeating by itself; recurring.

2) [adjective] revolving; rotating; rotary.

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Āvartaka (ಆವರ್ತಕ):—[noun] that which causes another to revolve, rotate or oscillate; an oscillator.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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