Avarta, Āvarta: 20 definitions


Avarta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Avart.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Āvarta (आवर्त).—One of the 108 karaṇas (minor dance movement) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 4. It is also known by the name Āvṛtta. The instructions for this āvarta-karaṇa is as follows, “the Kuñcita feet put forward and the two hands moved swiftly to befit the dance.”.

A karaṇa represents a minor dance movements and combines sthāna (standing position), cārī (foot and leg movement) and nṛttahasta (hands in dancing position).

2) Āvarta (आवर्त) also refers to a one of the twenty maṇḍalas, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 12. The Āvarta-maṇḍala is classified as a bhūmi, or “earthly”, of which there are ten in total. A maṇḍala is a combination of cārīs (“dance-steps”), which refers refers to the simultaneous movement of the feet (pāda), shanks (jaṅghā) and the hip (ūru). From these cārīs proceed dance as well as movements in general.

Instructions for performing āvarta:

1) The right foot [to be moved] in the janitā-cārī and the left foot in the talasañcara (nikuṭtana) cārī,
2) The right foot in the śakaṭāsyā and the ūrūdvṛttā-cārī,
3) The right foot the atikrāntā (apasarpī) cārī turning backwards and the cāṣagati-cārī,
4) The right foot in the syanditā-cārī and the left foot in the śakaṭāsyā-cārī,
5) The right foot in the bhramarī-cārī (with the trika turned round), and the left foot in the apakrāntā (apasarpī) cārī.

3) Āvarta (आवर्त) refers to one of the thirty-three alaṃkāras (embellishments), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. It is also known as Āvartaka. These alaṃkāras, or, ‘embellishments of song’, depend upon the four types of varṇas, which refers to a specific order of musical notes (svara). They are attached to the songs of seven forms, although not generally used in the dhruvās.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “āvarta is eight kalās of four consecutive notes ascending and descending. It is also formed with two alternative notes. In that case four kalās will have ascending and descending notes”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Āvarta (आवर्त) refers to the “first consecration of the new temple” as described in the Śaivāgamas.—The Saṃprokṣaṇavidhi of Kāmikāgama describes several types of consecration—Āvarta is the first consecration of the new temple, establishing a first mūlabālālaya and transferring the energy to the mūlasthāna and establishing the deity there. Anāvarta is the consecration performed as prāyaścitta for ritual pollution, falling down of images, discontinuity in the nityapūjā, cracks in the basements, shaking of the liṅga or pīṭha and so on.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Āvarta (आवर्त) refers to one of the four “terrible clouds (toyada) causing dissolution (pralaya)” that arose after Brahmā spilled four drops of semen unto the ground, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Śiva said to Brahmā:—“[...] the semen drops that fell in the middle of the altar-ground from you when you were excited by lust and seen by me will not be retained by any one. Four drops of your semen (caturbindu) fell on the ground. Hence so many terrible clouds (toyada) causing dissolution (pralaya) shall rise up in the sky (vyoman). In the meantime, (when Śiva said so) in front of the Devas and the sages, so many clouds emanated from the semen drops. O dear one, four types of great clouds that caused destruction are the Saṃvartaka, the Āvarta, the Puṣkara and the Droṇa. O excellent sage, those clouds rumbling and roaring with hideous sounds dropping showers at the slightest wish of Śiva burst asunder in the sky”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Āvarta (आवर्त) or Āvartaketu refers to a particular type of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Padma Ketu is a comet white like the stem of the lotus. If it appears only for a night, there will be joy and happiness in the land for 7 years. Āvarta Ketu is a comet of red colour; it appears in the west at mid-night with its tail pointing to the south and it is glossy. There will be happiness in the land for as many months as the number of kṣaṇas (four minutes) for which it continues to be visible”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Āvarta (आवर्त) refers to one of the eight cloud king (meghendra) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Āvarta is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Vibhīṣaṇa; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Cūta; with the direction-guardians (dikpāla) named Yama and with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Padma.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Āvarta (आवर्त) refers to the “turning (of the sun)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as Bodhisattva Gaganagañja explains to Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī what kind of concentration should be purified: “[...] (22) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Being endowed with shooting star’ they will overcome all habitual tendencies; (23) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Sunshine’, there will be no darkness; (24) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Turning of the sun’ (sūrya-āvarta), they will look at the thoughts of all living beings; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Āvarta (आवर्त) is the name of a northern province situated in East-Videha in Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“[...] Between them (i.e., the Vidyutprabha and Saumanasa Mountains) are the bhogabhumis, the Devakurus. [...] Between them (i.e., the Gandhamādana and Mālyavat Mountains) are the very charming Uttarakurus [...] East of the Devakurus and Uttarakurus, they are called East Videhas, and to the west, West Videhas, like different countries to each other. In each, there are 16 provinces, inaccessible to each other, separated by rivers and mountains, suitable to be conquered by a Cakrin. [viz., Āvarta, etc.] are the northern provinces of East Videha. [...]”.

Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra

Āvarta (आवर्त) is the name of a village visited by Mahāvīra during his fifth year of spiritual-exertion.—After Haleduga, the Lord moved ahead and reached Āvarta via Nāṅgalā. There he became meditative at the temple of Baladeva. After moving ahead, they reached ‘Kalambukā’, where the rulers of the mountainous region were two brothers, Megha and Kālahastī.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Āvarta (आवर्त) refers to the “whirlpool (of life)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who throw you into the whirlpool of life (bhava-āvarta) are certainly not [your] friends. Having shown [you] what is beneficial, yogis will form a kinship with you”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Āvarta.—cf. sarv-āvarta-yutā, ‘assigned as the date of pay- ment as it falls annually’ (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 310, note 1). Note: āvarta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

āvarta (आवर्त).—m A whirlpool. Revolving. A rising of hair (as on a horse). a Re- curring.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Āvarta (आवर्त).—1 Turning round, winding, revolving; प्रदक्षिणावर्तशिखः (pradakṣiṇāvartaśikhaḥ) Rām.6.73.23.

2) A whirlpool, an eddy, whirl; नृपं तमावर्तमनोज्ञनाभिः (nṛpaṃ tamāvartamanojñanābhiḥ) R.6.52; दर्शितावर्तनाभेः (darśitāvartanābheḥ) Meghadūta 28; Daśakumāracarita 2; आवर्तः संशयानाम् (āvartaḥ saṃśayānām) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.191.

3) Deliberation, revolving (in the mind), anxiety.

4) A lock of hair curling backwards, especially on a horse (considered lucky); आवर्ता यस्य जायन्ते धन्यः स तुरगोत्तमः (āvartā yasya jāyante dhanyaḥ sa turagottamaḥ) (śālihotra of bhoja).

5) The two depressions of the forehead above the eye-brows.

6) A crowded place (where many men live closely together).

7) A kind of jewel.

8) Name of a form of cloud personified; आवर्तो निर्जलो मेघः (āvarto nirjalo meghaḥ).

9) Melting (of metals).

1) Doubt; भ्रमं संमोहमावर्तम- भ्यासाद्विनिवर्तयेत् (bhramaṃ saṃmohamāvartama- bhyāsādvinivartayet) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.274.7.

11) Worldly existence (saṃsāra).

-rtam A mineral substance, pyrites (mākṣikadhātu).

Derivable forms: āvartaḥ (आवर्तः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Āvarta (आवर्त).—m., name of a sea and of a mountain: Divyāvadāna 102.28; 103.23—104.20. Note: as common noun, āvarta seems to me to have only meanings which it has in Sanskrit, as turn, turning, turning-place (dhāraṇyāvartāṃ…dhā- raṇīṃ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 475.8 etc.); eddy, whirlpool (Mahāvyutpatti 7037); etc.; in Lalitavistara 126.7, several times, probably of turns (curves, or the like) of alphabetic signs; see utkṣepa-lipi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āvarta (आवर्त).—i. e. ā-vṛt + a, m. 1. Turning, a turn. 2. A whirlpool, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 392. 3. A curl, [Nala] 19, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āvarta (आवर्त).—[masculine] turning, winding; whirl, vortex (lit. & [figuratively]); tuft of hair on the top of the head or between the eyebrows.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Āvarta (आवर्त):—[=ā-varta] a etc. See ā-√vṛt.

2) [=ā-varta] [from ā-vṛt] b m. turning, winding, turning round, revolving, [Rāmāyaṇa; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] whirl, gulf, whirlpool, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Meghadūta; Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] deliberation, revolving (in the mind), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a lock of hair that curls backwards (especially on a horse considered lucky), a curl, [Rāmāyaṇa; Śiśupāla-vadha] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] the two depressions of the forehead above the eyebrows, [Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] a crowded place where many men live close together

8) [v.s. ...] a kind of jewel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of a form of cloud personified

10) Āvartā (आवर्ता):—[=ā-vartā] [from ā-varta > ā-vṛt] f. Name of a river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Āvarta (आवर्त):—[=ā-varta] [from ā-vṛt] n. a mineral substance, pyrites, marcasite, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

[Sanskrit to German]

Avarta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Āvarta (आवर्त) [Also spelled avart]:—(nm) a whirlpool; densely populated place; recurrent; ~[na] rotation; revolution; recurrence; ~[] a rotator.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Āvarta (ಆವರ್ತ):—

1) [noun] a circular current in a river or sea, produced by opposing tides, winds or currents; a whirl pool; an eddy.

2) [noun] similar circular current in the wind; a whirl.

3) [noun] a cycle or a lock of curling hairs.

4) [noun] the act of turning or revolving.

5) [noun] a period of time in which events happen in a certain order, and which constantly repeats itself; a cycle.

6) [noun] (mus.) a cycle with definite number of time units.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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