Avamardana: 8 definitions


Avamardana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Avamardana in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Avamardana (अवमर्दन, “tormenting”) (or Avamardanagata, Avamardanagrāsa) refers to one of the ten types of (solar and lunar) eclipses (grāsa), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the eclipse should, commencing at the edge, travel inwards and remain there for a time of the shape of a dark ball, it is technically known as Nirodha (blocking up): all creatures will be happy. If the eclipse should be a total one and continue so for a time, it is known as Avamardana (tormenting): the then chief provinces will suffer and the then chief rulers will be afflicted with miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Avamardana in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Avamardana (अवमर्दन, “ruins”) refers to one of the various “outer torments”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV).—Accordingly, “There are two kinds of torments (alpābādatā), those having an external cause and those having an internal cause. The external torments are cold (śīta), heat (uṣṇa), hunger (kṣudh), thirst (pipāsā), armies (caturaṅgabala), swords (asi), knives (śastra), clubs (daṇḍa), catastrophes (patana), ruins (avamardana); all these external accidents of this kind are called torments (ādādha). The inner torments are the 404 illnesses (vyādhi) that come from improper food or irregular sleep; all the sicknesses of this kind are called inner sicknesses. Corporeal beings (dehin) all have to suffer from these two kinds of illnesses. This is why Ratnakāra asks Śākyamuni if he has but little torments and suffering”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Avamardana (अवमर्दन) refers to “violating (the teacher’s words)” [?], according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, they [the twenty-four types of pratibhāna—‘eloquence’] are accomplished by means of the following twenty-four preparations (parikarma). What are the twenty-four? [...] (16) he becomes one whose eloquence is to be accepted and received since he never violates (anavamardanaanavamardanatayā) the teacher’s words or disregards the other’s words; (17) he becomes one who has unfailing eloquence concerning the dharma since he accomplishes the dharma of his own merits; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Avamardana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Avamardana (अवमर्दन).—a. Trampling down, grinding, crushing; शत्रुबल° (śatrubala°) Rām.

-nam 1 Rubbing, shampooing; हस्तपाद° (hastapāda°) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.

2) Oppression, crushing down.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Avamardana (अवमर्दन).—i. e. ava -mṛd + ana. I. adj. Destroying, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 35, 114. Ii. n. Destruction.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Avamardana (अवमर्दन):—[=ava-mardana] [from ava-mṛd] mfn. crushing, oppressing, giving pain, [Rāmāyaṇa iii 35, 114]

2) [v.s. ...] n. rubbing (as of hands and feet), [Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] oppression, giving pain, [Mahābhārata iii, 12313; Rāmāyaṇa]

[Sanskrit to German]

Avamardana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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