Ashraya, Āśraya: 27 definitions


Ashraya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Āśraya can be transliterated into English as Asraya or Ashraya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Āśraya (आसन) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in warfare, referring to “seeking shelter”. Āśraya is considered to be one of the six constituents of state-craft that the King shall constantly ponder over. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Nītiprakāśikā 8.83 and the Manubhāṣya 7.160)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Āśraya, Seeking shelter, is that whereby even the weak becomes strong. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.160 et. seq.)

‘Seeking protection’ is of two kinds—

  1. done for the rescuing of what has been lost,
  2. and done for awaiting future aggression.
Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Āśraya (आश्रय).—Substratum. In the Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra the conjugational affixes are held to denote the substratum of action or result.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Āśraya (आश्रय).—Relation of dependence; cf. आश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति (āśrayātsiddhatvaṃ bhaviṣyati) M. Bh. I.1.12 Vārt. 4;

2) Āśraya.—Substratum, place of residence; cf. गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । (guṇavacanānāṃ śabdānāmāśrayato liṅgavacanāni bhavanti | śuddhaṃ vastram | śuklā śāṭī | śuklaḥ kambalaḥ |) M. Bh. II.2.29.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to a “resort” (shelter), according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. [...] It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures [i.e., sarva-jantu-sukha-āśrayā]. Since by means of his penance Śiva became (small) like a dove, he came to be called Kapoteśvara at the behest of Murāri (Viṣṇu). It is at his bidding that the Three-eyed Lord always stays here along with Mṛḍānī (Pārvatī)”.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to the “sharp sides (of a chariot)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.8 (“The detailed description of the chariot etc.”).—Accordingly, as Sanatkumāra narrated to Vyāsa: “The divine chariot of lord Śiva consisting of all the worlds was built by Viśvakarman with devoted effort. [...] The six seasons constituted the rims of the wheels of the chariot, O great Brahmin. The Puṣkara of the chariot was the sky. The inner side of the chariot was Mandara. The rising and the setting mountains constituted the poleshafts. Mahāmeru was the support and the Keśara mountains the sharp sides (āśraya) [adhiṣṭhānaṃ mahāmerurāśrayāḥ keśarācalāḥ]. [...]”.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Āśraya (आश्रय) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.112.110) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Āśraya) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to “repository of love for Kṛṣṇa, i.e., His devotee”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to “support”, according to the Mahānayaprakāśa verse 2.1-35, while explaining the cycles of the goddesses of consciousness.—Accordingly, “Vyomeśī is the undisturbed (anākulā) repose of all (these forms of) consciousness in the essential nature of the Sacred Seat because (her) nature is unobscured and endless. She resides inwardly in the body as the Pīṭha, which is the Void (śūnya). The unfolding of consciousness up to the organs of action has as its support (āśraya) the insentient (body consisting of the gross elements) starting with Space and ending with Earth (which exists) because of its grounding in that (consciousness). (In this case) the energy of the sacred seat of Space is the (one that functions) externally”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to “refuge”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] He who recites after that syllable your name, Śārikā, followed by namaḥ, attains forever to that abode where, when reached, one never suffers again. I praise you; it is you in whom I take refuge (āśraya). I serve the Goddess alone, the one power of all (powers). I utter my noisy stammering to you; I contemplate (you) who are everything, suitable for all, and everywhere. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

1) Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to “(ultimate) substrate” (of the mantras), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 22.5-10ab]—“[...] This Parameśvara is the ultimate substrate (āśrayaāśrayaḥ paramas) of [the mantras]. They have arisen through his will [i.e., they are self-arisen or self-illuminated consciousness] and [the mantras are] impelled [to act] through his Śakti. [Therefore,] all [mantras] become successful because they have authority everywhere. Wherever [there is] grounding (ālaya) [there is] Śiva, [that] is the highest ground of all . Mantras and fruitful [because their] power arises from him”.

2) Āśraya (आश्रय) refers to the “basis (of the cosmos)”, according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra.—Accordingly, [verse 8.4.7, while describing the purification process of the initiand]—“[...] [After cutting off of the topknot and perform homa]—This means, after he cuts off the topknot, he should throw it into fire, and after [he has] cut [the topknot] with [that with which it] pervades [i.e., he cuts the topknot and the pāśasūtra], he meditates on its correspondence to the flame [i.e., the fire consumes what is thrown into it and makes that which is thrown into it the same as fire], which has as its nature the power of vital energy, which is the basis of the cosmos (viśvādhvan-āśraya). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Tīkṣnendriya (तीक्ष्नेन्द्रिय) refers to “support”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[9. Simultaneous Teaching of Existence and Non-existence].—[...] For beings of dull faculties (atīkṣnendriya), it is said that there is no Ātman; for beings of sharp faculties (tīkṣnendriya) and deep wisdom (gambhīraprajñā), it is said that dharmas are empty from beginning to end. Why? Because Anātman involves the rejection of dharmas. Thus it is said: ‘If he knows Anātman well, every person who thinks in this way does not rejoice on hearing about existent dharmas, does not grieve on hearing about nonexistent dharmas’. Actually, to speak about Ātman is to give support (āśraya) to things; to speak about Anātman is to stop any support. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Āśraya.—(IA 20), subdivision of a viṣaya. Cf. āśiriyam, āśiriya-kkal, āśiriya-ppramāṇam (SITI), a document by which a person submits to another's protection. Note: āśraya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

āśraya (आश्रय).—m (S) An asylum; a refuge; a place of protection or security. 2 Shelter, protection, defence, cover, lit. fig. 3 Support or sustentation, lit. fig. sanction, authority, warrant, countenance; grounds, reasons, data: also that which supports, sustains, upholds, establishes. 4 Having recourse to; adopting, employing, using; observing, following, practising. 5 Proximity or vicinity.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

āśraya (आश्रय).—m An asylum, a refuse. Support, shelter.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय).—[āśri-ac]

1) A resting-place, seat, substratum; सौहृदादपृथगाश्रयामिमाम् (sauhṛdādapṛthagāśrayāmimām) Uttararāmacarita 1.45. so आश्रयासिद्ध (āśrayāsiddha) q. v. below.

2) That on which anything depends or rests or with which it is closely connected.

3) Recipient, receptacle, a person or thing in which any quality is present or retained &c.; तमाश्रयं दुष्प्रसहस्य तेजसः (tamāśrayaṃ duṣprasahasya tejasaḥ) R.3.58.

4) (a) A place of refuge, asylum; shelter; भर्ता वै ह्याश्रयः स्त्रीणाम् (bhartā vai hyāśrayaḥ strīṇām) Vet.; तदहमाश्रयोन्मूलनेनैव त्वामकामां करोमि (tadahamāśrayonmūlanenaiva tvāmakāmāṃ karomi) Mu.2. (b) A dwelling, house.

5) Having recourse or resort to, resort; oft. in comp. साभूद्रामाश्रया भूयः (sābhūdrāmāśrayā bhūyaḥ) R.12.35; नानाश्रया प्रकृतिः (nānāśrayā prakṛtiḥ) &c.

6) Following, practising; योऽवमन्येत ते मूले हेतुशास्त्राश्रयाद् द्विजः (yo'vamanyeta te mūle hetuśāstrāśrayād dvijaḥ) Manusmṛti 2.11.

7) Choosing, taking, attaching oneself to.

8) Dependence on; oft. in comp.; मम सर्वे विषयास्त्वदाश्रयाः (mama sarve viṣayāstvadāśrayāḥ) R.8.69.

9) Patron, supporter; विनाश्रयं न तिष्ठन्ति पण्डिता वनिता लताः (vināśrayaṃ na tiṣṭhanti paṇḍitā vanitā latāḥ) Udb.

1) A prop, support; वृक्षेषु विद्धमिषुभिर्जघनाश्रयेषु (vṛkṣeṣu viddhamiṣubhirjaghanāśrayeṣu) R.9.6.

11) Help, assistance, protection.

12) A quiver; बाणमाश्रयमुखात् समुद्धरन् (bāṇamāśrayamukhāt samuddharan) R.11.26.

13) Authority, sanction, warrant.

14) Connection, relation, association. राघवाश्रयसत्कथाः (rāghavāśrayasatkathāḥ) Rām. 6.9.93.

15) Union, attachment.

16) A plea, an excuse.

17) Contiguity, vicinity.

18) Seeking shelter or protection with another (= saṃśraya), one of the six guṇas, q. v.

19) An appropriate act, or one consistent with character.

2) Source, origin.

21) (In gram.) The subject, or that to which the predicate is attached.

22) (With Buddhists) The five organs of sense with Manas or mind.

Derivable forms: āśrayaḥ (आश्रयः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय).—m. (Sanskrit, basis etc.), (1) in Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra., according to Suzuki, the ālaya-vijñāna (q.v.) as basis of all vijñānas; one must make it converted, in revulsion (parāvṛtta, compare Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 9.11 parāvṛttāśraya); Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 10.5 anyathā dṛśyamāna ucchedam āśraye (so read with v.l. for °yo, text °yaḥ), if the basis is otherwise regarded (loc. abs.), (there is) destruction (it is fatal to the holder of such a view); (2) according to citation in Burnouf Introd. 449, six āśraya = the six sense organs (as one of the three groups constituting the 18 dhātu); this is said to be attributed to the Yogā- cāras in ‘le commentaire de L'Abhidharma’; it does not seem to occur in Abhidharmakośa and I have not noted precisely this usage in any text, but compare next; (3) according to Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. iii.126, le corps muni d'organes, qui est le point d'appui (āśraya) de ce qui est appuyé (āśrita) sur lui: à savoir de la pensée et des mentaux (cittacaitta). Is the obscure passage Mahāvastu ii.153.1—2 somehow concerned here? It reads, in a verse (see my Reader, Four Sights [Mahāvastu], n. 40) describing disease (vyādhi):…śokānāṃ prabhavo rativyupasamo (i.e. °śamo) cittāśrayāṇāṃ nidhi, dharma- syopaśamaḥ (lacuna of 6 syllables) gātrāśritānāṃ gṛhaṃ, yo lokaṃ pibate vapuś ca grasate etc. I should be inclined to emend to cittāśravāṇāṃ (compare Lalitavistara 345.21, below), but for the phrase gātrāśritānāṃ gṛhaṃ, which implies sup- port for āśraya; Senart refers to Burnouf (l.c.), but finds it hard to apply āśraya and āśrita as used in that passage; (4) commonly, body (compare prec.): Lalitavistara 324.16 (verse) subhato (= śu°) kalpayamāna āśrayaṃ vitathena, falsely imagin- ing the body to be handsome; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 6.13 lakṣaṇaiś ca prati- maṇḍitāśrayo; 23.1 me jvalita āśrayaḥ, my body was burned; 25.7 me tyakta varāśrayaḥ; 26.8; 27.16; Daśabhūmikasūtra 16.10; Avadāna-śataka i.175.4 pretāśrayasadṛśāḥ; 264.9 pretīṃ vikṛtāś- rayāṃ; 272.3; 291.17; 332.9; 356.7; 361.2; ii.172.9; see also cañcitāśraya; [in Lalitavistara 345.21 āśraya(-kṣaya-jñāna-) without v.l., but Tibetan translates āśrava, which must be adopted: knowledge leading to destruction of the impurities, not…of the body]. See next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Being inclined or addicted to following, practising. 2. A recipient, the person or thing in which any quality or article is inherent, retained or received. 3. An asylum, a place of refuge. 4. A patron, a protector. 5. Having recourse to a protector or asylum. 6. A dwelling. 7. Contiguity, vicinity. 8. Source, origin. 9. A plea, an excuse. 10. Appropriate act, one consistent with the character of the agent. E. āṅ before śri to serve, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय).—i. e. ā-śri + a, m. 1. A seat, [Pañcatantra] 51, 20; [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 11, 26 (a quiver). 2. An abode. 3. A retreat, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 27. 4. An asylum, [Pañcatantra] 211, 4. 5. Protection, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 43. 6. Recourse, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 11; refuge, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 12, 35. 7. Dependence, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 48. 8. Support, [Pañcatantra] 155, 8; help, [Pañcatantra] 95, 14. 9. Base, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 212, 3; the subject (in Logic), Bhāṣāp. 74. 10. Reference, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 143; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 185, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय).—[masculine] leaning, resting, depending on (—°); resting place, dwelling, seat, recipient or subject (of any quality or action); refuge, protection, aid, assistance; adj. —° = seq. [adjective]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Asrāya (अस्राय):—[from asra] [Nominal verb] [Ātmanepada] yate, to shed tears, ([gana] sukhādi q.v.)

2) Āśraya (आश्रय):—a etc. See ā-√śri.

3) [=ā-śraya] [from ā-śri] b m. that to which anything is annexed or with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests, [Pāṇini; Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa; Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] a recipient, the person or thing in which any quality or article is inherent or retained or received

5) [v.s. ...] seat, resting-place, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Suśruta] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] dwelling, asylum, place of refuge, shelter, [Rāmāyaṇa; Śiśupāla-vadha] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] depending on, having recourse to

8) [v.s. ...] help, assistance, protection, [Pañcatantra; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] authority, sanction, warrant

10) [v.s. ...] a plea, excuse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] the being inclined or addicted to, following, practising

12) [v.s. ...] attaching to, choosing, taking

13) [v.s. ...] joining, union, attachment

14) [v.s. ...] dependance, contiguity, vicinity, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Yājñavalkya; Manu-smṛti etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] relation

16) [v.s. ...] connection

17) [v.s. ...] appropriate act or one consistent with the character of the agent

18) [v.s. ...] (in [grammar]) the subject, that to which the predicate is annexed

19) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) the five organs of sense with manas or mind (the six together being the recipients of the āśrita or objects which enter them by way of their ālambana or qualities)

20) [v.s. ...] source, origin

21) [v.s. ...] mfn. ifc. depending on, resting on, endowed or furnished with (e.g. aṣṭa-guṇāśraya See under aṣṭa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय):—[ā-śraya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Asylum.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Āśraya (आश्रय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Āsaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ashraya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Ashraya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Āśraya (आश्रय) [Also spelled asray]:—(nm) shelter, refuge; patronage; retreat; seat; hence ~[dātā] a patron.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Āśraya (ಆಶ್ರಯ):—

1) [noun] that on which another relies; a support; a prop.

2) [noun] an original home or source; a habitat; a resort.

3) [noun] the act or fact of protecting another person, animal or thing; protection.

4) [noun] a place of protection; shelter; asylum.

--- OR ---

Āsraya (ಆಸ್ರಯ):—

1) [noun] that on which another relies; a support; a prop.

2) [noun] an original home or source; a habitat; a resort.

3) [noun] the act or fact of protecting another person, animal or thing; protection.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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