Arupi, Arūpī, Arūpin, Arūpi, Arupin: 15 definitions


Arupi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Arūpī (अरूपी) or Arūpin refers to the “one who has no form”, and represents an epithet of Goddess Durgā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.11. Accordingly as Brahmā said to Nārada:—“[...] O Brahmin, best of my sons, listen attentively to what I did when the lord Viṣṇu went away. I began a continuous laudatory prayer of the Goddess Durgā, [...] I salute the Goddess who is omnipresent, eternal, for whom there is no support, who is never distressed, who is the mother of the three deities, who is the grossest of the gross (sthūlāsthūla) and yet has no form (arūpin)”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Arūpin (अरूपिन्) refers to “that which is non-material” and is used to describe the consciousnesses, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “Neither the ear-organ (śrotrendriya), nor the auditory consciousness (śrotravijñāna), nor the mental consciousness (manovijñāna) are able to hear sounds. The coming together of many causes and conditions (hetuprayaya-saṃnipāta) is necessary to be able to hear sounds. It cannot be said that one single dharma hears sounds. Why? The ear-organ, lacking intellect (avabodha), cannot hear sounds; the consciousnesses, both auditory consciousness as well as mental [consciousness], being non-material (arūpin), offering no resistance (apratigha) and outside of space (adeśastha), are not able to hear sounds. [...]”.

2) Arūpin (अरूपिन्) refers to “that which is formless” representing non-existant characteristics of the Ātman, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “Without knowing if the Ātman exists or does not exist, you are asking why one does not produce the idea of the Ātman in regard to another. [The distinctions] between one’s own body (ātmakāya) and another’s body (parakāya) exist as a function of the Ātman. But the Ātman is non-existent. [The characteristics attributed to it]: having form (rūpin) or formless (arūpin), permanent (nitya) or impermanent (anitya), finite (antavat) or infinite (ananta), moveable (gantṛ) or motionless (agantṛ), cognizant (jñātṛ) or ignorant (ajñātṛ), active (kāraka) or inactive (akāraka), autonomous (svatantra) or non-autonomous (asvatantra): all these characteristics of the Ātman do not exist, as we have said above in the chapter on the Ātman. [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Arūpin (अरूपिन्) refers to “(that which is) immaterial” (i.e., the sky), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “When this had been said, the Lord said to the Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja: ‘Just as the sky is unlimited, in the same way, [the Bodhisattva] gives a gift making his mind endless. Just as the sky is extensive and without obstacle, in the same way, [the Bodhisattva] gives a gift as the transformation for awakening. Just as there is no material (arūpin) in the sky, thus, [the Bodhisattva] gives a gift not being dependent on any material. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: SOAS Research Online: Prekṣā meditation: History and Methods

Arūpī (अरूपी) or “formless” refers to one of the 46 qualities of the soul to be meditated on in the “Practice of Meditation on Liberated Souls (Siddhas)”, according to Jain texts like Ācārāṅga (5.6.123-140), Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama ( and Samayasāra (1.49).—The pure soul can be recognised by meditation on its true nature, represented by the liberated souls of the Siddhas. The practice which leads to this realisation is meditation on the fact that attachment, aversion, passions and the influx of karmas, are ‘not mine’, that I am separate from them and consist of infinite knowledge, perception, conduct, spiritual energy, that I am the pure, enlightened, and everlasting soul. The qualities of the soul to be meditated on as truly mine are: [e.g., My soul is formless (arūpī)] [...] The meditation on such extended fourty-five qualities of the pure soul presents the niśacaya-naya, which is aligned with Kundakunda’s approach.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

arūpī : (m.) the formless being.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Arūpin, (adj.) (a + rūpin) = arūpa; D. I, 31 (arūpī attā hoti: see DA. I, 119), 195; III, 111, 139; It. 87 (rūpino va arūpino va sattā). (Page 78)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Arūpin (अरूपिन्).—a. Shapeless, formless; वाधायासुरसैन्यानामप्रमेयानरूपिणः (vādhāyāsurasainyānāmaprameyānarūpiṇaḥ) Rām.1.21.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Arūpin (अरूपिन्).—adj. (= ārūpya, adj., °pyāvacara, arūpā- vacara), formless: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 45.7 °piṇaś ca devā(ḥ). (Pali arūpin, not in this sense).

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Ārūpin (आरूपिन्).—adj. (from ārūpa, q.v., plus -in), (something) characterized by formlessness: catvāra ārūpinaḥ skandhā(ḥ) Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 113.9; Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 382.(15—)16 (tat kiṃ manyase) subhūte ārūpi bodhisattva iti, so what think you, S. ? is a Bodhi- sattva something characterized by formlessness?

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arūpin (अरूपिन्).—adj. without shape, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 23, 15.

Arūpin is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a and rūpin (रूपिन्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arūpin (अरूपिन्):—[=a-rūpin] [from a-rūpa] mfn. shapeless, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 23, 15.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arūpin (अरूपिन्):—[(pī-piṇī-pi) a.] Shapeless.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Arūpin (अरूपिन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Arūvi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Arupi in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Arūpi (அரூபி) noun < a-rūpin.

1. God, without form; கடவுள். [kadavul.]

2. Śiva; சிவன். (பிங்கலகண்டு) [sivan. (pingalagandu)]

3. Spirit, Invisible Presence; அசரீரி. [asariri.] (மகாபாரதம் புட்பவிதி [magaparatham pudpavithi] 78.)

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Arūpi (அரூபி) noun < a-rūpin.

1. That which has no form; உருவமில்லாதது. [uruvamillathathu.] (தக்கயாகப்பரணி [thakkayagapparani] 474, உரை. [urai.])

2. Camphor; கற்பூரம். [karpuram.] (W.)

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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