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Aruṇa, aka: Aruṇā, Aruna; 9 Definition(s)

Introduction

Aruṇa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purāṇa

1a) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A son of Danu:1 the Rākṣasa with the sun in the months nabha and nabhasya.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 30.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 10; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 10.

1b) A sage of the eleventh epoch of Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 25.

1c) The son of Haryaśva, and father of Tribandhana.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 7. 4.

1d) A son of Mura (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 12.

1e) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 33.

1f) A hill near (on the other side of, Vāyu-purāṇa) Kailāsa, the residence of Girīśa and full of medicinal herbs. At its foot is the Śailodā lake from which rises the R. Śilodā on whose bank is the forest Surabhī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 18-23; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 17-22.

1g) A son of Viṅatā and brother of Garuḍa.1 The charioteer of the Sun. He is said to yoke the seven horses bearing the names of metres (chandas).2 Came to see Parīkṣit practising prāyopaveśa.3 Married Gṛdhrī (Śyenī, Vāyu-purāṇa) who gave birth to Sampāti and Jaṭāyu;4 A personification of Dawn: Image of.5

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 29; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 34; 150. 151-2; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 18.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 21. 15-16; Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 32; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 37.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 19. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 66.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 446; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 326.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 261. 7.

1h) A son of Raivata.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 21.

1i) A sādhya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 43.

1j) The sons of Dullola.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 443.

1k) Of the Kṣatriyas of Śālmali dvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 30.

2a) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—R. of Plakṣa dvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 4.

2b) An apsaras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 5.

2c) A Devī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 48; 44. 41.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Aruṇa (अरुण), the elder brother of Garuḍa. Vinatā, his mother opened the egg prematurely. As a result, a baby was born lame. He is lame but full of tejas, possessed of heroic luster. So he was able to stand the heat of the Sun. Consequently, Brahmā chose him to be the charioteer of the Sun god. Aruṇa warned his mother not to open the other egg before term. He predicted to her that a powerful son would come out of that egg and whose prowess would be equal to that of Indra.

Sūrya (sun god) is in his chariot drawn by seven horses with Aruṇa his charioteer. From the purāṇic story, we know that Aruṇa was born cripple because his mother Vinatā, in the anxiety to see her forthcoming child, broke the egg before term.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)Purāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Āyurveda (science of life)

1) Aruṇā (अरुणा) is another name for Indravāruṇī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to the Citrullus colocynthis (wild gourd), from the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 3.69-71), which is a  13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

2) Aruṇā (अरुणा) is another name for Guñjā, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 3.112-114), which is a  13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

3) Aruṇa (अरुण) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Śilpaśāstra (iconography)

Aruṇa (अरुण) is depicted as a sculpture on the fourth pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—In the medallion, Sūrya (sun god) is in his chariot drawn by seven horses with Aruṇa his charioteer. From the purāṇic story, we know that Aruṇa was born cripple because his mother Vinatā, in the anxiety to see her forthcoming child, broke the egg before term. In this image he is shown with weak legs. The Sun is represented standing with his attendants Uṣā and Pratyuṣā.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)Śilpaśāstra book cover
context information

Śilpaśāstra (शिल्पशास्त्र, shilpa-shastra) represents the ancient Indian science of creative arts such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vāstuśāstra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Aruṇá or Aruṇ sometimes also called Anoora, is a personification of the reddish glow of the rising Sun, which is believed to have spiritual powers. The presence of Aruṇá, the coming of day, is invoked in Hindu prayers to Surya.

Aruṇá is sometimes considered a part of Surya, as he is the vision and driving force behind its path through the sky. In some stories, Aruṇá drives the chariot of Surya, while in others, he is a manifestation of Surya, serving as a sign of the coming of the Sun.

Aruṇa is also believed to be the father of Jatayu and Sampati (King of the Vultures), who are both mentioned in the Ramayana.

Vinata was one of the wives of rishi Kashyapa, and she bore him two sons, Aruṇá and Garuda, bringing them out as eggs. From the broken egg a flash of light, Aruṇá, sprang forth. He was as radiant and reddish as the morning sun. But, due to the premature breaking of the egg, Aruṇá was not as bright as the noon sun as he was promised to be.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Aruna - A khattiya, father of Sikhi Buddha and husband of Pabhavati (Bu.xxi.15; J.i.41; AA.i.436). Arunas chief queen became the Theri Abhaya in the present age (ThigA.41). Another of his wives became, in her last life, the Theri Soma (ThigA.66), who is perhaps to be identified with Uppaladayika of the Apadana (Ap.ii.601f). In the Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.155) he is called Arunava.

2. Aruna - The Assaka king of Potali in the Assaka country. (In the main story the kings name is given as Assaka, but the scholiast says his real name was Aruna). The Kalinga king of that time, longing for a fight, but finding no one willing to accept his challenge, at last devised a plan. He sent his four beautiful daughters, in a covered carriage and with an armed escort to the various cities in the neighbourhood, proclaiming that any king, who took them as wives, would have to fight their father. No one was found willing to take the risk till they came to Potali in the Assaka country. Even the Assaka king at first merely sent them a present by way of courtesy, but his minister, Nandisena, fertile in expedients, urged the king to marry them, saying that he himself would undertake to face the consequences. The Kalinga king at once set out with his army. On his way to Potali, he came across the Bodhisatta, who was leading the ascetic life and, without revealing his identity, consulted him regarding his chances of success in the fight. The Bodhisatta promised that he would see Sakka about it the next day and, having done so, informed the king that the Kalinga forces would win. Nandisena heard of this prophecy but, nothing daunted, he gathered together the Assaka forces and all their allies; then, by a well planned manoeuvre, he managed to have the tutelary deity of Kalinga (who was fighting for the Kalinga king) killed by Assaka. Thereupon the Kalinga king was routed and fled. The Bodhisatta, finding that his prophecy had turned out false, sought Sakka in his distress; Sakka consoled him thus: Hast thou never heard that even the gods favour the bold hero of intrepid resolve, who never yields?

Later, at the suggestion of Nandisena, the Assaka king demanded of Kalingas ruler dowry for his four daughters, and the Kalinga king acceded to his request. The story is told in the Kalinga Jataka (J.iii.3ff.).

3. Aruna - The pleasaunce near Anupama where the Buddha Vessabhu first preached to his chief disciples, Sona and Uttara. Bu.xxii.22, BuA.205.

4. Aruna - The name of the lotus that grows in the Naga world. It was one of Uppalavannas wishes to have a body of the colour of the Aruna lotus. Ap.ii.554(v.39).

5. Aruna - A class of devas present at the preaching of the Maha Samaya Sutta. They were of diverse hue, of wondrous gifts, mighty powers, comely and with splendid following. D.ii.260.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Pali

aruṇa : (m.) 1. the dawn; 2. ruddy colour. (adj.), reddish.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Aruṇa, (Vedic aruṇa (adj.) of the colour of fire, i.e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sk. aruṣa reddish, Av. auruša white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sk. rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etym. under rohita), Gr. e)rudrόs, Lat. ruber. ) the sun Vin. II, 68; IV, 245; J. II, 154; V, 403; VI, 330; Dpvs. I, 56; DA. I, 30. ‹-› a. uggacchati the sun rises J. I, 108; VvA. 75, & see cpds.

—ugga sunrise Vin. IV, 272; S. V, 29, 78, 101, 442 (at all Saṃyutta pass. the v. l. SS is aruṇagga); Vism. 49. —uggamana sunrise (opp. oggamanna). Vin. III, 196, 204, 264; IV, 86, 166, 230, 244; DhA. I, 165; II, 6; PvA. 109. —utu the occasion of the sun (-rise) DhA. I, 165. —vaṇṇa of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism. 123; DhA I 1. 3 = PvA. 216. —sadisa (vaṇṇa) like the sun (in colour) PvA. 211 (gloss for suriyavaṇṇa). (Page 78)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English DictionaryPali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Aruṇa (अरुण) is the shorter name of  Aruṇadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Aruṇasamudra (or simply Aruṇa), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Aruṇa is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

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