Arta, Ārta, Arita, Aritá: 14 definitions

Introduction:

Arta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Ārta (आर्त) refers to “one who approaches Bhagavān in a mood of distress (7.16)”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ārta (आर्त) refers to “distressed” and represents one of the “four meritorious persons”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.43.—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Dakṣa:—“[...] four kinds of meritorious persons worship me always. O patriarch Dakṣa, the latter are greater than the former. They are—the distressed (i.e., ārta), the inquisitive, the fortune-seeker and the wise. The first three are ordinary and the fourth one is extraordinary person. The wise among these four is a great favourite of mine. He is of my own form. None is dearer to me than the wise. It is the truth. I tell you the truth”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ārta (आर्त) refers to “(being) tormented (by heat)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[4. Insults to the Disciples].—[...] But beings who do not understand the mind of the Buddha seek out faults in his words. If beings knew with what good intentions (adhyāśaya) the Buddha has pity on them, they would joyously throw themselves into a great fire if he asked them to, and that with as much enthusiasm as a person tormented by heat (gharma-ārta) throws himself into a clear cool pool. And all the more so, why not accept his words? [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Ārta (आर्त) refers to “pain”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [after the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “Then at the time of drought [at] the lotus lake, all forest flowers, fruits, leaves and foliage were dry, the flowers withered. The fish, Makaras, Timiṅgilas, alligators, bees and various other water-born beings were deprived of water, and when only little water remained they fled in the ten directions, dashed, ran with pained hearts (ārta-hṛdaya) because their lives were obstructed and ruined”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Ārta (आर्त) (Prakrit: Aṭṭa) refers to “anguished” and represents one of the “four kinds of meditation” (Dhyāna), according to the Sthānāṅga Sūtra chapter 4.1.—The classification of meditation in the Sthānāṅga Sūtra comprises four kinds [e.g. “anguished” (aṭṭa/ārta)]. [...]—Cf Aupapātika Sūtra and Bhagavatī (Bhagavaī), also known as the Vyākhyāprajñapti (Viyāhapannatti).

2) Ārta (आर्त) refers to “(being) oppressed” (e.g., by decay or death), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “You must understand that the body is overcome by disease, youth is overcome by old age, vitality is oppressed by decay (vināśa-ārta) and life is oppressed by death (maraṇa-ārta)”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ārta (आर्त).—a. [ā-ṛ-kta]

1) Afflicted with, struck by, suffering from, pained by; सा त्रियामा तदार्तस्य चन्द्रमण्डल- मण्डिता (sā triyāmā tadārtasya candramaṇḍala- maṇḍitā) Rām.2.13.15; usually in comp., कामार्त, क्षुधार्त, तृषार्त (kāmārta, kṣudhārta, tṛṣārta) &c.

2) Sick, diseased; आर्तस्य यथौषधम् (ārtasya yathauṣadham) R.1.28; Manusmṛti 4.236.

3) Distressed, afflicted, struck by calamity, oppressed, unhappy; आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी (ārto jijñāsurarthārthī) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 7.16; आर्तत्राणाय वः शस्त्रं न प्रहर्तुमनागसि (ārtatrāṇāya vaḥ śastraṃ na prahartumanāgasi) Ś.1.11; R.2.28,8.31, 12.1,32.

4) Perishable (vināśin ato'nyadārtam) Bṛ. Up.3.4.2.

5) Inconvenient; आर्ता यस्मिन् काले भवन्ति स आर्तः कालः (ārtā yasmin kāle bhavanti sa ārtaḥ kālaḥ) | ŚB. on MS.6.5.37.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārta (आर्त).—[adjective] fallen into (mischief); afflicted, distressed, pained, troubled by (—°), suffering, sick, sore, unhappy; [abstract] † [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ārta (आर्त):—[from ār] a mfn. (optionally also written ārtta, whence erroneously derived [from] √ṛt or even regarded as irreg. formation [from] √ard; See also Weber in [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa p.339, l. 20 ff.]) fallen into (misfortune), struck by calamity, afflicted, pained, disturbed

2) [v.s. ...] injured

3) [v.s. ...] oppressed, suffering, sick, unhappy, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā; Raghuvaṃśa etc.]

4) b etc. See 2. ār (ā-√ṛ).

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ārta (आर्त) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aṭṭa, Āriya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Arta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ārṭa (आर्ट) [Also spelled art]:—(nm) art; -[gailarī] an artgallery; —[pepara] art paper.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Arita (ಅರಿತ):—

1) [noun] the act of cutting in to pieces; a cutting off; incision.

2) [noun] a cutting or being cut; a cut.

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Aṟita (ಅಱಿತ):—

1) [noun] the act, fact or state of knowing; awareness of fact.

2) [noun] all that has been perceived or grasped by the mind; learning; enlightenment.

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Ārta (ಆರ್ತ):—

1) [adjective] afflicted with; struck by; suffering from.

2) [adjective] being sick; diseased.

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Ārta (ಆರ್ತ):—

1) [noun] = ಆರ್ತಧ್ಯಾನ [artadhyana].

2) [noun] an afflicted, distressed man.

3) [noun] a sick man.

4) [noun] a man who has a or some desires.

5) [noun] the state of being distressed; pain, suffering, discomfort, etc.; distress; affliction.

6) [noun] a desire; a wish.

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Ārta (ಆರ್ತ):—[noun] an able man; a competent man.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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