Apavada, Apavāda: 22 definitions


Apavada means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Apvad.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Apavāda (अपवाद, “censure”) refers to ‘censure’ of another’s misdeeds. Apavāda represents one of the thirteen vimarśasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Vimarśasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the pause part (vimarśa)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Apavāda (अपवाद).—One of the thirteen elements of the ‘pause segment’ (vimarśasandhi);—(Description:) Proclaiming anyone’s fault is called Censure (apavāda).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Apavāda (अपवाद).—A special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the general rule. e.g. आतोनुपसर्गे कः (ātonupasarge kaḥ) III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् (karmaṇyaṇ) III.2.1; cf. येन नाप्राप्तो यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवा-दोयं येगो भवति (yena nāprāpto yo vidhirārabhyate sa tasya bādhako bhavati, tadapavā-doyaṃ yego bhavati); Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्प-विषयाः विधयः । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । (nyāyairmiśrānapavādān pratīyāt | nyāyā utsargāḥ mahāvidhayaḥ | apavādā alpa-viṣayāḥ vidhayaḥ | tānutsargeṇa miśrānekīkṛtāñ jānīyāt | apavādaviṣayaṃ muktvā utsargāḥ pravartante ityarthaḥ |) R. Pr. I. 23 and com. thereon ; (2) fault; cf. शास्त्रा-पवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् (śāstrā-pavādāt pratipattibhedāt) R. Pr. XIV. 30 on which उव्वट (uvvaṭa) remarks शास्त्राणाम-पवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता (śāstrāṇāma-pavādā doṣāḥ santi punaruktatā avispaṣṭārthatā, kaṣṭaśabdārthatā)...

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Apavāda (अपवाद) refers to an “exception” (i.e., ‘a specific rule that is an exception invalidates general rules’), according to Tantrālokaviveka commentary on the Tantrāloka verses 4.230ab-232ab.—Accordingly, “[‘If you argue that this Śaiva rule is invalidated by the Vedic one, (we reply:) why shouldn’t it be the other way around?’].—[...] Considering that one may object by asking how it is that both [śāstras] are equally real, given that in certain contexts the injunction(s) associated with purity and the like are invalidated, even though they apply universally, for all people, [Abhinavagupta] says: [‘If you think about it clearly, a rule that is an exception (apavāda) invalidates a rule generally applied, because it applies in a particular domain’]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Apavāda (अपवाद) refers to “slanderous words”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.54 (“Description of the duties of the chaste wife”).—Accordingly, as a Brahmin lady said to Pārvatī: “[...] The chaste lady shall never take a higher seat never approach a defiled person, never speak to her husband in agitation. She should avoid slanderous words (apavāda), shun quarrels and shall not speak aloud or laugh in the presence of elders. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: The Treasury of Knowledge: Book six, parts one and two (philosophy)

Apavāda (अपवाद) refers to “(imaginations of) underestimation or repudiation” and represents one of the ten aspects of distracting false imagination (daśa-vikṣepa-vikalpa), according to Khewang Yeshe Gyatso, Exegetical Memorandum chapter 5 (Cf. Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkārakārikā, chapter 11). These [e.g., Apavāda] are related to the imaginary nature (parikalpita). These ten are enumerated as aspects of false imagination which may be imputed in all sorts of contexts, and it is on this basis that the process of reification actually comes to partake of the imaginary nature.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Apavāda (अपवाद) refers to “censure”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Speech that is untrue [and] harsh, that is the abode of censure (apavāda-āspadībhūta) [and] gives instruction about the wrong path, is to be considered to produce bad influx of karma. One who is restrained continually accumulates good karma by the activity of the body through his body which is well-controlled or by abandoning the body”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Apavada in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

apavāda : (m.) reproach; blaming; finding fault.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

apavāda (अपवाद).—m (S) Unjust imputation or censure. 2 Restriction of a general rule; making exception: also an exception.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

apavāda (अपवाद).—m Unjust imputation, a censure. Restriction of a general rule. An exception.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Apavāda (अपवाद).—

1) Censuring, reviling; censure, reproach, blame, abuse; आः तातापवादभिन्नमर्याद (āḥ tātāpavādabhinnamaryāda) Uttararāmacarita 5; लोकापवादो बल- वान्मतो मे (lokāpavādo bala- vānmato me) R.14.4; लोकापवादाद्भयम् (lokāpavādādbhayam) Bhartṛhari 2.62; scandal, evil report; चिरकालान्मया श्रुतस्तवापवादः (cirakālānmayā śrutastavāpavādaḥ) Pt.I; Kirātārjunīya 11.25, 14.12; Mṛcchakaṭika 9.3; Uttararāmacarita 1; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4; Y.2.27; देव्यामपि हि वैदेह्यां सापवादो यतो जनः (devyāmapi hi vaidehyāṃ sāpavādo yato janaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 1.6 spreading or indulging in scandals about; न केवलमत्याहितं सापवादमपि (na kevalamatyāhitaṃ sāpavādamapi) Uttararāmacarita 2; साप- वादम् (sāpa- vādam) censuringly Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.

2) An exception, a special rule that restricts or sets aside a general rule (opp. utsarga); मा हिंस्यात्सर्वभूतानि इति उत्सर्गः (mā hiṃsyātsarvabhūtāni iti utsargaḥ); वायव्यं श्वेतमालभेत इत्यपवादः (vāyavyaṃ śvetamālabheta ityapavādaḥ); अपवादैरिवोत्सर्गाः कृतव्यावृत्तयः परैः (apavādairivotsargāḥ kṛtavyāvṛttayaḥ paraiḥ) Kumārasambhava 2.27; R. 15.7; °प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ) exceptional suffix; °स्थलम् (sthalam) a case for a special rule.

3) An order, command; ततोऽपवादेन पताकिनीपते- श्चचाल निर्ह्रादवती महाचमूः (tato'pavādena patākinīpate- ścacāla nirhrādavatī mahācamūḥ) Kirātārjunīya 14.27. cf. ... अपवादस्तु निन्दने । आज्ञायां स्यात् (apavādastu nindane | ājñāyāṃ syāt) ... ()| Nm.

4) Refutation; (in Vedānta Phil.) refutation as of a wrong imputation or belief; रज्जुविव- र्तस्य सर्पस्य रज्जुमात्रत्ववत्, वस्तुभूतब्रह्मणो विवर्तस्य प्रपञ्चादेः वस्तु- भूतरूपतोऽपदेशः अपवादः (rajjuviva- rtasya sarpasya rajjumātratvavat, vastubhūtabrahmaṇo vivartasya prapañcādeḥ vastu- bhūtarūpato'padeśaḥ apavādaḥ) Tv.; अध्यारोपापवादाभ्यां वस्तुतत्त्वविनिश्चयः (adhyāropāpavādābhyāṃ vastutattvaviniścayaḥ) Vedānta; hence also, a means of refutation.

5) Confidence, trust.

6) Love; familiarity.

7) A small bell or other instrument sounded to decoy deer; मधुकरैरपवाद- करैरिव (madhukarairapavāda- karairiva) Śiśupālavadha 6.9; (°karaiḥ = vyādhaiḥ; apavādaṃ mṛgavañcanāya ghaṇṭādi- kutsitavādyaṃ kurvanti taiḥ Malli.)

Derivable forms: apavādaḥ (अपवादः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apavāda (अपवाद).—m.

(-daḥ) 1. Censure, blame. 2. An order, a command. 3. Difference, distinction, exception. 4. Contradiction, opposition, denial. E. apa implying aversion, and vāda speech, from vada with ghañ; also avavāda.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apavāda (अपवाद).—i. e. apa-vad + a, m. 1. Refutation of an erroncous imputation, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 211, 24. 2. Insulting, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 239. 3. Blame, [Pañcatantra] 37, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apavāda (अपवाद).—[masculine] refutation, restriction, exception, censure, blame.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Apavāda (अपवाद):—[=apa-vāda] [from apa-vad] a m. evil speaking, reviling, blaming, speaking ill of ([genitive case])

2) [v.s. ...] denial, refutation, contradiction

3) [v.s. ...] a special rule setting aside a general one, exception (opposed to utsarga, [Pāṇini 3-1, 94] [Scholiast or Commentator]), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] order, command, [Kirātārjunīya]

5) [v.s. ...] a peculiar noise made by hunters to entice deer, [Śiśupāla-vadha vi, 9.]

6) [=apa-vāda] b etc. See apa-√vad.

7) [v.s. ...] (also) the withdrawal of the adhyāropa or superimposed attribute (in the Vedānta).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apavada (अपवद):—[tatpurusha compound] (?) m.

(-daḥ) A proper name (mentioned by the Gaṇaratnam. amongst the utsādi; comp. Pāṇ. Iv. 1. 86.). E. Probably vad with apa, kṛt aff. ac.

--- OR ---

Apavāda (अपवाद):—[tatpurusha compound] m.

(-daḥ) I.

1) Refutation, as of an erroneous imputation; e. g. …evamadhyāropaḥ . apavādo nāma rajjuvivartasya sarpasya rajjumātratvavat &c. ‘so much for the erroneous imputation—to the soul of properties that do not belong to it—; now the refutation is: like as the rope alone becomes manifest, instead of the serpent (taken for a rope) which obscured (the reality) of the rope &c.

2) Restriction of a previous rule, decree, definition &c.; e. g. Manu 8. 341. is a cauryāpavāda or a case which does not fall under the category of theft; Yājnav. 2. 83. is an apavāda to the rule that a witness must speak the truth.—In Grammar it means an exception to a rule and comprises as well those rules which supersede as those which restrict a general rule (compare vibhāṣā); the terms opposed to it are utsarga, e. g. prakalpya vāpavādaviṣayaṃ tata utsargobhiniviśate; kvacidapavādaviṣayepyutsargopi pravartate; or vidhi, e. g. purastādapavādā anantaravidhīnbādhante na parān . madhyepavādāḥ pūrvānvidhīnbādhante na parān; sometimes both combined, e. g. abhyāsavikāreṣvapavādā utsargānvidhīnna bādhante. —The term bādhāpavāda means ‘exception to an exception’ i. e. the reestablishing of the previous rule, precept &c.

3) Censure, blame, evil report; e. g. āyurviprāpavādena (scil. kṣarati); or lokāpavādādapi na bhīto’si.

5) An order, a command; (in this sense the more correct reading of the word is probably avavāda). E. vad with apa, kṛt aff. ghañ. Ii. A wrong assertion, a wrong tenet; e. g. apavādamātramabuddhānām ‘—(to say that the void is the true reality) —is a wrong assertion of people who are not wise (comm. mūḍhānāmapavādamātraṃ mithyāvāda eva)’. E. apa and vāda.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apavāda (अपवाद):—[apa-vāda] (daḥ) 1. m. Censure; a bell or pipe used in deer-hunting.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Apavāda (अपवाद) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Avavāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Apavada in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Apavada in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Apavāda (अपवाद) [Also spelled apvad]:—(nm) exception; slander, calumny; hence ~[ka, apavādī] (nm).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Apavāda (ಅಪವಾದ):—

1) [noun] very bad reputation; disgrace; dishonour.

2) [noun] an accusation; an indictment.

3) [noun] a false allegation made with a view to disgracing or bringing discredit to.

4) [noun] the act of refuting or proving false or wrong; disproof; refutation; denial.

5) [noun] anything that is excepted esp. a) a case to which a rule, general principle, etc. does not apply; b) a person or thing different from or treated differently from others of the same class; an exception (to a general rule).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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