Anupreksha, Anuprekṣā: 3 definitions


Anupreksha means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Anuprekṣā can be transliterated into English as Anupreksa or Anupreksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Anupreksha in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Anuprekṣā (अनुप्रेक्षा, “contemplation”).—One of the five types of self-study (svādhyāya);—What is meant by ‘contemplation’ (anuprekṣā)? To mentally recite and contemplate the meanings of the texts / verses taught is called contemplation.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Anuprekṣā (अनुप्रेक्षा) refers to the “(twelve) reflections”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “And the reflections (anuprekṣā) certainly always ought to be the foundation for virtuous [meditation]. Having fixed those in the ground of the mind, examine [your] nature”.

In Tattvārtha Sūtra 9.2206, Umāsvāti lists anuprekṣā as one of the six ways of stopping the influx of karma (saṃvara). While Tatia (1994: 219) translates anuprekṣā in this context as “reflection”, Jain, S.A. (1992: 241) uses “contemplation”. In his commentary on Tattvārtha Sūtra 9.2, Pūjyapāda states:—“reflecting on the nature of the body and so on is anuprekṣā”. [...] in Tattvārtha Sūtra 9.25215 Umāsvāti also lists (albeit in a slightly different order to the Aupapātika Sūtra) the five kinds of scriptural study that include anuprekṣā which Tatia (1994: 235) translates as “reflection”. In his commentary on this sūtra, Siddhasena explains anuprekṣā as “the mental repetition of the text and [its] meaning”.

Note: The entry in Monier-Williams s.v. bhāvanā includes “reflection, contemplation”. In the later Jain texts, especially among Śvetāmbara sources, bhāvanā was used interchangeably with, or instead of, anuprekṣā. The verse quoted at the beginning of this section shows how Śubhacandra’s text is an example of this usage since there anuprekṣā is a reference to the twelve reflections, dvādaśa-bhāvanā.

2) Anuprekṣā (अनुप्रेक्षा) (Prakrit: Aṇuppehā) refers to “reflections”, according to the Sthānāṅga Sūtra chapter 4.1.

The four reflections that are prescribed for virtuous meditation are (dhammajhāṇa/dharmadhyāna):

  1. reflection on solitariness (ega-aṇuppehā/eka-anuprekṣā),
  2. reflection on impermanence (aṇicca-aṇuppehā/anitya-anuprekṣā),
  3. reflection on helplessness (asaraṇa-aṇuppehā/aśaraṇa-anuprekṣā), and
  4. reflection on the cycle of rebirth (saṃsāra-aṇuppehā/saṃsāra-anuprekṣā).

The four reflections that are prescribed for pure meditation (sukkajhāṇa/śukladhyāna) are:

  1. reflection on the endless continuity of the world (aṇaṃtavattiya-aṇuppehā/anantavṛttita-anuprekṣā),
  2. reflection on the change of things (vippariṇāma-aṇuppehā/vipariṇāma-anuprekṣā),
  3. reflection on the inauspicious nature of the cycle of rebirth (asubha-aṇuppehā/aśubha-anuprekṣā), and
  4. reflection on misfortune (avāya-aṇuppehā/apāya-anuprekṣā).
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of anupreksha or anupreksa in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Anupreksha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Anuprekṣā (अनुप्रेक्षा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aṇupekkhā, Aṇupehā, Aṇuppehā.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of anupreksha or anupreksa in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: