Adhikara, Adhikāra, Adhīkāra: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Adhikara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

1) Adhikāra (अधिकार) refers to “injunction of qualification ”. It is one of the four classifications of vidhi (injunciton).—Adhikāra-vidhi is an injunction which determines which person has a right to undertake the activity or be involved in some stage of the process.

2) Adhikāra (अधिकार) refers to “one’s suitability” and is one of the six factors through which positive ethical precepts (regarding Dharma) are conditioned. The discerning student is required to distinguish between grades of vidhi or to compare their levels of authority or applicability. The primary distinction is derived from their motivation and goals, thus producing the concepts of puruṣārtha and kratvārtha.

context information

Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Mimamsa from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Adhikāra (अधिकार).—Governing rule consisting of a word (e.g. प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः (pratyayaḥ, dhātoḥ, samāsāntāḥ) etc.) or words (e.g. ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे (ṅyāpprātipadikāt, sarvasya dve) etc.) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार (adhikāra) is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार (adhikāra) and परिभाषा (paribhāṣā); cf. अधिकारः प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । (adhikāraḥ pratiyogaṃ tasyānirdeśārtha iti yoge yoge upatiṣṭhate| paribhāṣā punarekadeśasthā satī sarvaṃ śāstramabhijvalayati pradīpavat |) See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार (svaritoccāra) or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम् (svaritatvena uccāraṇam). The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत (adhikṛta). The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापारः अधिकारः (ekaṃtropāttasyānyatra vyāpāraḥ adhikāraḥ) Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ) P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य (aṅgasya) P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः (samāsāntāḥ) P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeated. The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् (asiddhavadatrābhāt) P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्नि-पाताः (prāgrīśvarānni-pātāḥ) P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा (svaritatvapratijñā). This अधिकार (adhikāra) or governance has its influence of three kinds: (1) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् (striyām) or अङ्गस्य (aṅgasya); (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान (apādāna) being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्य-केभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराःः (sāṃkāśya-kebhyaḥ pāṭaliputrakā abhirūpatarāḥḥ) (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposing. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित (svarita) and hence termed अधिकार (adhikāra) possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य (adhikāragati, adhika krārya) and अधिक कार (adhika kāra). For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार (adhikāra) or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; cf. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च । (siṃhāvalokitaṃ caiva maṇḍūkaplutameva ca |) ; गड्गाप्रवा-हवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥ (gaḍgāpravā-havaccāpi adhikārāstridhā matāḥ ||)

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra

Adhikāra (अधिकार) refers to a “scrutiny of the required qualifications of the Yogin” and is dealt with in the Yogapāda section of the Mālinīvijayottara’s, which is concerned with the conquest of the levels of reality (tattvajaya).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (vedanta)

Adhikāra (अधिकार) refers to the “qualification” or “eligibility” (e.g., to the study of the Veda).—Śaṅkara also holds that the study of the Veda is permitted only to the community of twice-born (dvija) males, not to lower castes (śūdra), women, foreigners (mleccha), and others. Just like the knowledge of Brahman and the means (sādhana) of acquiring it, the ‘qualification’ or ‘eligibility’ (adhikāra) to the study of the Veda is a matter of Vedic revelation, not of human understanding. It is the Veda itself that ‘appoints’ (adhikṛ) whoever may be eligible for its instruction.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Vedanta from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Adhikāra.—cf. Tamil Adigāram (EI 25); same as Adhikārin (SII 1), explained as ‘a magistrate’. Note: adhikāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

adhikāra : (m.) 1. management; 2. office; 3. aspiration.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Adhikāra, (cp. Sk. adhikāra) attendance, service, administration, supervision, management, help Vin.I, 55; J.I, 56; VI, 251; Miln.60, 115, 165; PvA.124 (dāna°; cp. Pv.II, 927); DhA.II, 41. (Page 27)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhikāra (अधिकार).—n (S) A public charge or employment; an office, post, place. 2 Right, title, authority, justness of claim or pretension. 3 Province; proper office or business: also authority; right of action. 4 In grammar. A general rule laid down; a governing direction or statement; a precept or word heading and applying to a number of particulars: also the application of such rule or precept. 5 Subject, theme, matter proposed or contemplated. Ex. brahmajñāna uddēśūna vēdānta pravṛtta jhālā tasmāt tyāmadhyēṃ bramhajñānācāca a0 6 Rule, government, exercising or holding authority.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhikāra (अधिकार).—m An office. Authority. Rule.

--- OR ---

adhikāra (अधिकार) [-vibhājana-vibhāgaṇī, -विभाजन-विभागणी].—n f Decentrali- zation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhikāra (अधिकार).—1 Superintendence, watching over; स्त्रीषु कष्टोऽधिकारः (strīṣu kaṣṭo'dhikāraḥ) V.3.1; यः पौरवेण राज्ञा धर्माधिकारे नियुक्तः (yaḥ pauraveṇa rājñā dharmādhikāre niyuktaḥ) Ś.1 superintendence of religious matters.

2) Duty, office, charge; power, post of authority; authority; मन्त्राधि- कारः (mantrādhi- kāraḥ) Kau. A.1 निर्णयाधिकारे ब्रवीमि (nirṇayādhikāre bravīmi) M.1. I say this in the capacity of a judge; अविश्रमोऽयं लोकतन्त्राधिकारः (aviśramo'yaṃ lokatantrādhikāraḥ) Ś.5; द्वीपिनस्ताम्बूलाधिकारो दत्तः (dvīpinastāmbūlādhikāro dattaḥ) Pt.1, तुल्योद्योगस्तव दिनकृतश्चाधिकारो मतो नः (tulyodyogastava dinakṛtaścādhikāro mato naḥ) V.2.1.; अर्थ° (artha°) administration of pecuniary matters स्वाधिकारात् प्रमत्तः (svādhikārāt pramattaḥ) Me.1; अधिकारे मम पुत्रको नियुक्तः (adhikāre mama putrako niyuktaḥ) M.5; यः सर्वाधिकारे नियुक्तः प्रधानमन्त्री स करोतु, अनुजीविना पर° चर्चा न कर्तव्या (yaḥ sarvādhikāre niyuktaḥ pradhānamantrī sa karotu, anujīvinā para° carcā na kartavyā) H.2; शिल्पाधिकारे योग्येयं दारिका (śilpādhikāre yogyeyaṃ dārikā) M.1 fit to be initiated in to the fine arts.

3) Sovereignty, government or administration, jurisdiction, rule; स्वाधिकार- भूमौ वर्तिष्यते (svādhikāra- bhūmau vartiṣyate) Ś.7 seat of government or jurisdiction, °खेदं निरूप्य (khedaṃ nirūpya) Ś.5.

4) Position, dignity, rank; हृताधिकारां मलिनाम् (hṛtādhikārāṃ malinām) Y.1.7 deprived of the position or rights or privileges of a wife.

5) (a) Right, authority, privilege, claim, title (as to wealth, property &c.); right of ownership or possession; अधिकारः फले स्वाम्यमथिकारी च तत्प्रभुः (adhikāraḥ phale svāmyamathikārī ca tatprabhuḥ) S. D.296; वत्सेऽधिकारः स्थितः (vatse'dhikāraḥ sthitaḥ) Mv.4.38 it now belongs to the child. (b) Qualification or authority to perform certain specified duties, civil, sacrificial, religious &c.; as the अधिकार (adhikāra) of a king to rule and protect, of a Brāhmaṇa to sacrifice, of a Vaiśya to till or trade &c.; शूद्रोऽधिकारहीनोऽपि (śūdro'dhikārahīno'pi) Y.3.262; with loc.; निषेकादिस्मशा- नान्तो मन्त्रैर्यस्योदितो विधिः । तस्य शास्त्रेऽधिकारोऽस्मिन् ज्ञेयो नान्यस्य कस्यचित् (niṣekādismaśā- nānto mantrairyasyodito vidhiḥ | tasya śāstre'dhikāro'smin jñeyo nānyasya kasyacit) Ms.2.16; श्राद्धाधिकारसम्पदस्तु इति भवन्तो ब्रुवन्तु (śrāddhādhikārasampadastu iti bhavanto bruvantu) (repeated in Śrāddha ceremonies).

6) Prerogative of a king.

7) Effort, exertion; कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन (karmaṇyevādhikāraste mā phaleṣu kadācana) Bg.2.47 your business is with action alone &c.

8) Relation, reference; स राघवस्तत्र तदा प्रलापाञ् शुश्राव लोकस्य समागतस्य । आत्माधिकारा विविधाश्च वाचः (sa rāghavastatra tadā pralāpāñ śuśrāva lokasya samāgatasya | ātmādhikārā vividhāśca vācaḥ) Rām.2.17.43. कथा विचित्राः पृतनाधिकाराः (kathā vicitrāḥ pṛtanādhikārāḥ) Mb.

9) Place = अधिकरण (adhikaraṇa); महत्खलु पुरुषाधिकारं ज्योतिः (mahatkhalu puruṣādhikāraṃ jyotiḥ) M.1.

1) A topic, paragraph or section; प्रायश्चित्त° (prāyaścitta°) Mit.; See अधिकरण (adhikaraṇa).

11) Counting, enumeration, occasion for counting; संसत्सु जाते पुरुषाधिकारे (saṃsatsu jāte puruṣādhikāre) Ki. 3.51 (gaṇanāprastāve).

12) (In gram.) A head or governing rule, which exerts a directing or governing influence over other rules; e. g. सर्वस्य द्वे (sarvasya dve) P.VIII.1.1; समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (samarthānāṃ prathamādvā); प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् (prāgdīvyato'ṇ) IV.1.82-3; तत्पुरुषः (tatpuruṣaḥ) II. 1.22; अधिकारोऽयं (adhikāro'yaṃ) Sk. (This adhikāra is of three kinds; siṃhāvalokitaṃ caiva maṇḍūkaplutameva ca | gaṅgāpravāhavaccāpi adhikārastridhā mataḥ ||.) अधिकार (adhikāra) also means a word or sūtra extending over in the following सूत्र (sūtra)s up to a particular limit.

Derivable forms: adhikāraḥ (अधिकारः).

--- OR ---

Adhīkāra (अधीकार).—[kṛ-ghañ upasargadīrghatvam] = अधिकार (adhikāra) q. v.; स्वागतं स्वानधीकारानवलम्ब्य (svāgataṃ svānadhīkārānavalambya) Ku.2.18; सर्वाकरेष्वधीकारः (sarvākareṣvadhīkāraḥ) Ms. 11.63.

Derivable forms: adhīkāraḥ (अधीकारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Adhikāra (अधिकार).—m., (= Pali id.), service, respectful duty performed towards another, usually a superior (and especially a Buddha); Senart Mahāvastu i.402, note on i.37.11—12, renders offrande, and so Suzuki on Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 6.3 offerings. No doubt the ‘service’ often included or consisted of offerings; but that this was not necessarily so is proved by Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 111.12 bahūhi kāryehi kṛtādhikārāḥ, said of merchants (vāṇijāḥ) employed by a wealthy capitalist who do service (to him) with many business-operations (certainly not offerings, kāryehi!). The [compound] kṛtādhikāra (Pali katā°) is very common and in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] most often refers to services per- formed for present or past Buddhas: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 49.13; Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 6.3 (kṛtādhikārā buddheṣu kariṣyanty adhunā ca vai); Mahāvastu ii.288.8; iii.263.12; purima-jina-kṛtādhikāra Lalitavistara 393.6; Mahāvastu ii.312.5; sumahantā adhikārā mayā kṛtā (to former Buddhas) Mahāvastu iii.241.12; (bhagavato…) adhikāraṃ kartuṃ Mahāvastu i.37.12;…kṛtvā Mahāvastu i.44.14; prasannādhikāra, service tendered by one who is kindly disposed, i.e. service of friendship, Divyāvadāna 305.7; 308.20 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhikāra (अधिकार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Authority. 2. Supremacy. 3. Rule, government. 4. Right, title. 5. Property, ownership. 6. Privilege. 7. Duty, office. 8. A chapter, a section. 9. The use of royal insignia. 10. (In grammar; Government, the dependance of a form on a previous one. E. adhi over, and kāra what makes, from kṛ with ghañ affix; what gives or exercises pre-eminence.

--- OR ---

Adhīkāra (अधीकार).—m.

(-raḥ) Superintendence, authority, &c. See adhikāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhikāra (अधिकार).—adhīkāra, i. e. adhi-kṛ + a, m. 1. Superintendence, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 42. 2. Administration. 3. Office, [Pañcatantra] 63, 23. 4. Office of a king. 5. Right, title, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 16. 6. Topic, main point.

Adhikāra can also be spelled as Adhīkāra (अधीकार).

--- OR ---

Adhīkāra (अधीकार).—adhīkāra; see adhikāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhikāra (अधिकार).—[masculine] supremacy, authority, government, dignity, rank, office, service; right, title to ([locative]), chapter, head; heading-rule ([grammar]).

--- OR ---

Adhīkāra (अधीकार).—[masculine] superintendence ([with] [locative]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhikāra (अधिकार):—[=adhi-kāra] [from adhi-kṛ] m. authority

2) [v.s. ...] government, rule, administration, jurisdiction

3) [v.s. ...] royalty, prerogative

4) [v.s. ...] title

5) [v.s. ...] rank

6) [v.s. ...] office

7) [v.s. ...] claim, right, especially to perform sacrifices with benefit

8) [v.s. ...] privilege, ownership

9) [v.s. ...] property

10) [v.s. ...] reference, relation

11) [v.s. ...] a topic, subject

12) [v.s. ...] a paragraph or minor section

13) [v.s. ...] (in [grammar]) government, a governing-rule (the influence of which over any number of succeeding rules is called anu-vṛtti q.v.)

14) Adhīkāra (अधीकार):—[=adhī-kāra] m. (= adhi-kāra) superintendence over ([locative case]), [Manu-smṛti xi, 63]

15) [v.s. ...] authorization, capability, [Mahābhārata]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of adhikara in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: