Adhika: 14 definitions

Introduction

Adhika means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Adhika (अधिक).—Additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः (adhikaḥ kāraḥ) or अधिकं कार्यम् (adhikaṃ kāryam); cf. M. Bh. on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72;

2) Adhika.—Surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (athākhyāḥ samāmnāyādhikāḥ prāgriphitāt) (V.Pr. I.33.)

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Adhika (अधिक) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Among the ancient Ālaṃkārikas only Rudraṭa has admitted this figure adhika. Mammaṭa in his Kāvyaprakāśa, has dealt with this figure adhika. Ruyyaka (A.S. P. 134) makes a precise and lucide definition.

According to Cirañjīva when of the two the container and the thing contained the latter one is described as vaster than the former the figure adhika emerges—“adhikaṃ tvadhikādhārādādheyādhikyavarṇane”.—In this world usually the thing contained becomes smaller and the container becomes vaster. The container may incorporate within itself so many big things, but in the case of this figure the thing contained becomes vaster than the container.

Example of the adhika-alaṃkāra:—

asti brahmāṇḍabhānḍaṃ hi yasmillokāścaturdaśa |
tasminnapi na te bhāti kīrtirjagati kīrtita ||

“Oh! Praised in the world! There is the container in the form of universe in which the fourteen worlds are contained, even in this container your fame is not contained”.

Notes: This verse is taken from Kalpalata, composed by the author himself which is now lost. In this verse it is said that this universe is such a vast thing that fourteen worlds are contained in it. But even in this universe the fame of the king is not contained. It spreads surpassing the whole universe. Here the universe is the container and the fame of the king is contained. Here the exceeding of the fame is described, so it is an example of adhika.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Adhika (अधिक) refers to one of the months (māsa) in the Vedic calendar.—There are twelve months in a Vedic lunar calendar, and approximately every three years, there is a thirteenth month. Each month has a predominating deity and approximately corresponds with the solar christian months. [...] In accordance with the month of the year, one would utter the Vedic month, for example, adhika-māsi.

The presiding deity of Adhika is Puruṣottama .

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Adhika (अधिक) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Adhika] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Adhika.—(EI 3), intercalary [month]. Note: adhika is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

adhika : (adj.) exceeding; superior.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Adhika, (adj.) (fr. adhi; cp. Sk. adhika) exceeding, extraordinary, superior, Pug.35; VvA.80 (= anadhivara, visiṭṭha); DA.I, 141, 222; Dpvs.V, 32 (an°); DhA.III, 238; KhA 193 (= anuttara); Sdhp.337, 447. — compar. adhikatara DhA.II, 7; III, 176; nt. °ṃ as adv. extraordinarily PvA.86 (= adhimattaṃ). In combn. with numerals adhika has the meaning of “in addition, with an additional, plus” (cp. ādi + ādika, with which it is evidently confounded, adhika being constructed in the same way as ādika, i. e. preceding the noun-determination), e. g. catunahutâdhikāni dve yojana-sahassāni 2000 + 94 (= 294 000) J.I, 25; sattamāsâdhikāni sattavassāni 7 years and 7 months J.V, 319; paññāsâdhikāni pañca vassa-satani 500 + 50 (= 550) PvA.152. See also sâdhika. (Page 27)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhika (अधिक).—a (S) More. 2 Greater or larger. 3 Additional or supernumerary;--used of the intercalary month occurring every two and a half years. 4 Above, beyond, exceeding, surpassing. Also in comp.: as guṇādhika Of superior merit or worth; of higher excellencies or qualities; rasādhika Of finer taste or flavor; of surpassing pathos or sentiment. 5 In comp. with numerals as the middle member of the compound. Augmented by: as ēkādhikaśata A hundred and one; pañcādhika-śata-sahastra-lakṣa- &c. 6 Preëminent or extraordinary, in a bad sense; i.e. wild, wilful, mischievous--a child.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhika (अधिक).—a More, greater. Above.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhika (अधिक).—a. [abbreviation of adhyārūḍha; adhyārūḍhaśabdāt kan uttarapadalopaśca P.V.2.73].

1) More, additional, greater (opp. ūna or sama); तदस्मिन्नधिकम् (tadasminnadhikam) P.V.2.45. (In comp. with numerals) plus, greater by; अष्टाधिकं शतम् (aṣṭādhikaṃ śatam) 1 plus 8 = 18; चत्वारिंशतोऽधिकाः (catvāriṃśato'dhikāḥ) = °चत्वारिंशाः (catvāriṃśāḥ) more than 4; नवाधिकां नवतिम् (navādhikāṃ navatim) R.3.69; एकाधिकं हरेज्जयेष्टः (ekādhikaṃ harejjayeṣṭaḥ) Ms.9.117.

2) (a) Surpassing in quantity, more numerous, copious, excessive, abundant; in comp. or with instr.; श्वासः प्रमाणाधिकः (śvāsaḥ pramāṇādhikaḥ) Ś.1.29. more than the usual measure. (b) Inordinate, grown, increased, become greater; abounding in, full of; strong in; °क्रोध (krodha) R.12.9; वयोऽधिकः (vayo'dhikaḥ) Ms.4.141 senior in years; शिशुरधिकवयाः (śiśuradhikavayāḥ) Ve.3.32. old, advanced in years; भवनेषु रसाधिकेषु (bhavaneṣu rasādhikeṣu) v. l. (sudhāriteṣu) पूर्वं (pūrvaṃ) Ś.7.2; करोति रागं हृदि कौतुकाधिकं (karoti rāgaṃ hṛdi kautukādhikaṃ) K.2.; रसाधिके मनसि (rasādhike manasi) Śi.17.48 abounding in.

3) (a) More, greater, stronger, mightier, more violent or intense; अधिकां कुरु देवि गुरुभक्तिम् (adhikāṃ kuru devi gurubhaktim) K.62; ऊनं न सत्त्वेष्वधिको बबाधे (ūnaṃ na sattveṣvadhiko babādhe) R.2.14 the stronger animal did not prey on the weaker; पुमान्पुंसोऽधिके शुक्रे स्त्री भवत्यधिके स्त्रियाः (pumānpuṃso'dhike śukre strī bhavatyadhike striyāḥ) Ms.3.49; अधिकं मेनिरे विष्णुम् (adhikaṃ menire viṣṇum) Rām.; अधिकं मित्रम् (adhikaṃ mitram) Pt.2; यवीयान्गुणतोऽधिकः (yavīyānguṇato'dhikaḥ) Ms.11.185;9.154. (b) Superior to, better than; higher than [with abl. or in comp.); प्रमाणादधिकस्यापि मत्तदन्तिनः (pramāṇādadhikasyāpi mattadantinaḥ) Pt.1.327; सेनाशते- भ्योऽधिका बुद्धिः (senāśate- bhyo'dhikā buddhiḥ) Mu.1.27 surpassing, more than a match for &c.; विधेरधिकसंभारः (vidheradhikasaṃbhāraḥ) R.15.62 more than what was sanctioned by rules; तपस्विभ्योऽधिको योगी (tapasvibhyo'dhiko yogī) Bg.6.46; ब्रह्म प्रदानेभ्योऽधिकम् (brahma pradānebhyo'dhikam) Y.1.212; अश्वाधिको राजा (aśvādhiko rājā) H.3.77 strong in cavalry; धनधान्याधिको वैश्यः (dhanadhānyādhiko vaiśyaḥ) H.4.21 excels in, is superior by reason of; लोकाधिकं तेजः (lokādhikaṃ tejaḥ) Mu.4.1 superior to; sometimes with gen.; पञ्चदशानां भ्रातणामधिको गुणैः (pañcadaśānāṃ bhrātaṇāmadhiko guṇaiḥ) K.136.

4) Later, subsequent, further than (of time); राजन्य- बन्धोर्द्वाविंशे (rājanya- bandhordvāviṃśe) (keśānto vidhīyate) वैश्यस्य द्वयधिके ततः (vaiśyasya dvayadhike tataḥ) Ms.2.65.2 years later i. e. in the 24th year; sometimes with gen.; ममाधिका वा तुल्या वा (mamādhikā vā tulyā vā) Rām.

5) Eminent, uncommon, special, peculiar (asādhāraṇa); विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपमधिकम् (vidyā nāma narasya rūpamadhikam) Bh.2.2 superior or uncommon form or beauty; धर्मो हि तेषामधिको विशेषः (dharmo hi teṣāmadhiko viśeṣaḥ) H. Pr.25; इज्याध्ययनदानानि वैश्यस्य क्षत्रियस्य च । प्रतिग्रहोऽधिको विप्रे याजनाध्यनापने तथा (ijyādhyayanadānāni vaiśyasya kṣatriyasya ca | pratigraho'dhiko vipre yājanādhyanāpane tathā) || Y.1.118; sometimes used in the comparative in the above senses; क्लेशोऽधिकतरस्तेषाम् (kleśo'dhikatarasteṣām) Bg.12.5; °तरमिदानीं राजते राजलक्ष्मीः (taramidānīṃ rājate rājalakṣmīḥ) V. 5.22; स्वर्गादधिकतरं निर्वृत्तिस्थानम् (svargādadhikataraṃ nirvṛttisthānam) Ś.7.

6) Redundant, superfluous; °अङ्ग (aṅga) having a redundant limb; नोद्वहेत्कपिलां कन्यां नाधिकाङ्गीं न रोगिणीम् (nodvahetkapilāṃ kanyāṃ nādhikāṅgīṃ na rogiṇīm) Ms.3.8.

7) Intercalated, intercalary (as a month &c.)

8) Inferior, secondary.

-kam 1 Surplus, excess, more; लाभोऽधिकं फलम् (lābho'dhikaṃ phalam) Ak.

2) Abundance, redundancy, superfluity.

3) A figure of speech equivalent to hyperbole; आश्रयाश्रयिणोरेकस्याधिक्येऽधिक- मुच्यते । किमधिकमस्य ब्रूमो महिमानं वारिधेईरिर्यत्र । अज्ञात एव शेते कुक्षौ निक्षिप्य भुवनानि ॥ अत्र आश्रयस्याधिक्यम् । युगान्तकालप्रतिसंहृता- त्मनो जगन्ति यस्यां सविकाशमासत । तनौ ममुस्तत्र न कैटभद्विपस्तपो- धनाभ्यागमसंभृता मुदः (āśrayāśrayiṇorekasyādhikye'dhika- mucyate | kimadhikamasya brūmo mahimānaṃ vāridheīriryatra | ajñāta eva śete kukṣau nikṣipya bhuvanāni || atra āśrayasyādhikyam | yugāntakālapratisaṃhṛtā- tmano jaganti yasyāṃ savikāśamāsata | tanau mamustatra na kaiṭabhadvipastapo- dhanābhyāgamasaṃbhṛtā mudaḥ) || S. D; महतोर्यन्महीयांसावाश्रिताश्रययोः क्रमात् । आश्रयाश्रयिणौ स्यातां तनुत्वेऽयधिकं तु तत् (mahatoryanmahīyāṃsāvāśritāśrayayoḥ kramāt | āśrayāśrayiṇau syātāṃ tanutve'yadhikaṃ tu tat) || K. P.1. -adv.

1) More, in a greater degree; स राज्यं गुरुणा दत्तं प्रतिपद्याधिकं बभौ (sa rājyaṃ guruṇā dattaṃ pratipadyādhikaṃ babhau) R.4.1; shone the more; 3.18; यस्मिन्नैवा- धिकं चक्षुरारोपयति पार्थिवः (yasminnaivā- dhikaṃ cakṣurāropayati pārthivaḥ) Pt.1.243; oft. in comp.; इयम- धिकमनोज्ञा (iyama- dhikamanojñā) Ś.1.2; °सुरभि (surabhi) Me.21.

2) Exceedingly, too much.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhika (अधिक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Exceeding, more, over, more than, in addition to. n.

(-kaṃ) A figure in rhetoric, (Hyperbole.) E. adhi and ka, from kai to sound.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhika (अधिक).—[adhi + ka], adj. 1. Exceeding, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 49; greater, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 9, 9 stronger, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 29; more than, with the abl., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 154; higher than, with the abl., [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 6, 46; dearer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 45, 32, Gorr. 2. Surpassing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 185; chief, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 48; highest, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 17. 3. Having an addition, adhikaṃ māsam, ‘a month and more,’ [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 15, 27. 4. Too much, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 16, 78.

— acc. sing. kam, adv. 1. Much, exceedingly. 2. More; with the abl., [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 419. Comparat. adhika + tara, Better than, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 100, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhika (अधिक).—[adjective] exceeding, extraordinary; superior, more, better than ([ablative], [instrumental], [genetive], or —°), by ([instrumental] or —°). °— and [neuter] [adverb]; [abstract] = [neuter], also [feminine] tva [neuter]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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